Note: practice quizzes are easily accessible only for those part of the hand-operated covering rule of the road (Chapters 4 v 11 and Road Signs).

You are watching: As a driver you are legally obligated to


As a driver, girlfriend must learn to safely re-superstructure the road with a selection of various other users. This include, however are not limited to: large vehicles, motorcycles, mopeds, pedestrians, bicyclists, in-line skaters, roller skaters, skateboarders, slow moving vehicles, non-motorized scooters and also horseback riders. You need to know how to safely control the troubles they have the right to present and also understand the one-of-a-kind rules they should obey.



Pedestrians and skateboarders are at high hazard in traffic. The legislation requires girlfriend to it is in extra careful to avoid a collision v them.

Look out for youngsters near schools, bus stops, playgrounds, parks and ice cream trucks.

When you earlier up your car or van look v your back home window for pedestrians. Do no rely just on mirrors when kids are near. Prior to you ago into a driveway, or the end of it, acquire out of the vehicle and check behind your vehicle.

Pedestrians are an alleged to walk on the side of the road and face the website traffic in the roadway nearest them. When when you make a ideal turn watch because that pedestrians on her right. As soon as you make a left turn, watch for pedestrians ~ above the other side that the roadway on your left.

Pedestrians and also skateboarders who are legally crossing the roadway or street at marked or unmarked crossings, choose an intersection, constantly have the right-of-way. You need to decrease your rate or, if necessary, involved a complete stop. The elderly and also persons with disabilities deserve to require additional time to complete their crossings.

A special right-of-way law enables blind pedestrians to go throughout the roadway with a overview dog or a white or steel cane. You must always give lock the right-of-way as soon as they space trying to overcome at a marked or unmarked crosswalk, even if the web traffic signals or various other right-of-way rules are not in your favor.

Remember to move your eyes together you drive. Look come either next every few seconds to help you clues pedestrians near or approaching the roadway.

The regulation requires pedestrians and also skateboarders to:

Obey traffic and pedestrian signals, traffic officers and also official signs.Use the sidewalk when obtainable or face traffic together they walk, as far from the close to traffic lane together possible.Never was standing in the roadway to hitchhike or conduct service with motorists.



Bicyclists and also in-line skaters have the right to share the road and travel in the exact same direction as motor vehicles. Lock are frequently hard to view in traffic and also have no security from a traffic crash. Inspect your "blind spots" before you do a turn, parallel park, open up a door or leaving a curb. Carry out not depend just on her mirrors - turn your head come look because that bicyclists and also skaters and also scooter operators that might be next to you or approaching.

Give bicyclists and also in-line skaters room once you drive. Mitigate speed as you pass them. Air push from a automobile that overcome them quickly can send them turn off balance.

Be mindful that the bicyclist or in-line skater close to or in prior of you can react to road dangers like a motorcyclist would through sudden alters of speed, direction or roadway position.

The rule of the road and also right-of-way apply to and also protect these and other highway users. You must yield the right-of-way come them simply as you would certainly to one more vehicle. And also they have to obey the rule of the road just as motor vehicle drivers do.

Bicyclists and also in-line skaters must:Ride in a bicycle lane, if available. Wherein there is none, they need to remain near the best curb or sheet of the roadway or top top a right shoulder of the road, to avoid interference with various other traffic. Once they prepare because that a left revolve or must relocate left to stop hazards, cyclists perform not need to remain come the right.Come to a full stop before they enter a roadway from a driveway, an alley or over a curb.Never travel with more than two side-by-side in a single lane.Never drive on a sidewalk if that is prohibition by local laws.

Bicyclists and also their passengers and also in-line skaters, eras 1 through 13, should wear an approved helmet. Adults must obey type of local legislations or regulations about helmet use.

Bicyclists also must:Signal turns, roadway changes and also stops through the usage of the hand signals shown. A bicyclist can signal a right turn when they prolong the best arm straight out to the right. 


Left turn - left arm completely extended come left; prevent - left eight extended and also bent under at elbow; ideal turn - right arm completely extended to appropriate or left eight extended and also bent up in ~ elbow

Never lug an infant under a year old as a passenger. It is versus the law. Child passengers eras 1 - 4 year old should ride in fastened bicycle security seats.Never bring a passenger unless the bicycle has a passenger seat.Keep at least one hand top top the handlebars at every times and also do not carry type of item which avoids correct regulate of the bicycle crash that causes death or serious injury must be reported to within 10 job of the incident. Bicycle accident report develops (MV-104C) are easily accessible at type of motor auto office.

A bicycle moved on public highways must have adequate brakes and a horn or bell that can be heard at the very least 100 feet (30 m) away. A bicycle offered at night must have actually a headlight clearly shows from at the very least 500 feet (150 m) ahead and a red taillight clearly shows from at the very least 300 feet (90 m) behind. Among these lights must be clearly shows from at least 200 feet (60 m) away on each side. A bicycle offered by a dealer must have wide-angle, spoke-mounted reflectors or reflective tires, a wide-angle behind reflector and pedal reflectors.



As a driver, girlfriend share the roadway with a other motorists – not every one of which space driving dare or trucks. Motorcycles are typical on new York roads. As a driver, you space responsible to be aware of motorcycles and understand exactly how to safely share the road with them.

Motorcycles (which encompass scooters and mopeds) come in a selection of shapes and sizes. Brand-new York State Law defines a motorcycle together “Every motor car having a chair or saddle because that the usage of the rider and also designed to travel on not much more than three wheels in call with the ground, yet excluding a tractor.” motorcycles you’ll see have actually either two or 3 wheels. Examples incorporate (but are not limited to Cruisers, Standards, Dual-sport, Off-road, sports bikes, Tourers, Mopeds, and Scooters):


Motorcyclists have actually the exact same rights and responsibilities as motorists of various other vehicles, and also must monitor the same traffic regulations as pedestrians, bicyclists and also skaters. Though you may regularly see motorcycles ~ above the roadways in the spring, summer, or loss – you can encounter motorcycles ayellowcomic.comtime and also ayellowcomic.comwhere. Because we don’t view them all year, we might not actively think around them.

When there is a crash including a motorcycle and also another vehicle, the rider (and passenger) have actually a much higher chance of being seriously pains or killed than the driver (and passengers) of the other vehicle. Despite motorcyclists are required to wear approved helmets and goggles or a challenge shield, motorcycles themselves execute not market the driver the protections that you have with other varieties of vehicles. For example, motorcycles don’t protect the rider through a frame around the rider. motorists who are associated in a crash through a motorcyclist report that they go not view the motorcycle. The inquiry is “why not?” 

There space several components that do motorcyclists less visible.

Motorcycles, when compared to various other highway users, space smaller. No issue from i m sorry direction you check out a motorcycle (front, back, or side), you’ll discover they are smaller than other highway users. Motorcycles may appear to move much faster than various other vehicles. A motorcycle’s smaller size renders it seem lot farther away, and also makes it an overwhelming to judge how far away they room or how quick they space going. Motorcycles might not take up the whole lane due to the fact that they room not as broad as various other vehicles, but an proficient rider may move roughly within a roadway to protect against obstacles, or to assist them check out better. In addition to making use of the full lane, two motorcyclists are allowed to drive side-by-side in a solitary lane, but a motorcyclist cannot pass or re-publishing a roadway with one more motor vehicle that is no a motorcycle. If you are overtaking a car/SUV/truck, you might not have actually seen the motorcycle in prior of that auto until you’re currently in the passing lane. The very same holds true if you space entering one expressway. You may not watch a motorcycle the is steering in the left portion of the roadway you intend to merge into.Motorcycle light is different, and also often less obvious, than other vehicles:Headlights and also taillights ~ above motorcycles should be illuminated as soon as driving. But, with so plenty of vehicles equipped with daytime running lights (i.e. Headlights that are always on – even in daylight), motorcycle headlights don’t was standing out.It’s more tough to view the brake lights. Tail lamp on a motorcycle are normally smaller in dimension than those on various other vehicles, and because motorcycle tail lights are constantly on, the brake lamp don’t constantly stand out.Motorcycles don’t have a tail light at eye level. cars and also trucks are equipped with a “Center High Mount avoid Light” (CHMSL) which is design to it is in at, or nearby to, eye level. motorcycle brake lamp are mounted lower 보다 eye level, which renders them less apparent to numerous motorists.Turn signals on motorcycles are frequently close come the headlight or taillights, which have the right to make them more an overwhelming to see. Additionally, on motorcycles, the directional signal does not revolve off automatically after a turn, so their turn signal might be top top inadvertently when the motorcyclist has actually no on purpose of turning.


Intersections can be particularly dangerous because that motorcycles. It’s human nature come notice large vehicles first. Motorcycles are smaller sized than various other vehicles, and they might seem to “blend in.” Numbers aid tell the story:

The nationwide Highway traffic Safety management reports that, in 2015, 41 percent of deadly motorcycle crashes in the US arisen with “the other vehicle transforming left if the motorcycles were going straight, passing, or overtaking other vehicles.” In 2014, there were 4,750 report motorcycle crashes in new York State. 2,546 of this crashes involved one more vehicle. That’s 53.6% of the report crashes. 


Another factor is that chauffeurs may not view motorcycles simply due to the fact that they don’t look because that motorcycles. It’s human being nature come look for something specific. A brand-new driver might be told come look for cars (and trucks) prior to going through an intersection – and also that is exactly what the driver will certainly look for. All vehicle drivers need come train us to look because that a multitude of dangers (including – but NOT minimal TO - trucks, buses, bicyclists, pedestrians, and also motorcycles).

Because motorcyclists have to take additional precautions as soon as they come upon one-of-a-kind highway surfaces, friend should understand what a motorcyclist may do:

The motorcyclist may quickly readjust speed or lane place to avoid loose gravel, debris, seams or grooves in the pavement, sewer or access covers or animals.When pull close a railroad crossing, a motorcyclist might decrease speed and also rise turn off the chair to cushion the rough crossing and change direction to go throughout the monitor at a right angle.On steel deck bridges the motorcyclist may move to the center of the lane to change for the surface that is no even. Continue to be a great distance behind a motorcyclist in this situation.

Drivers require to change how lock drive roughly motorcycles. 

Don’t tailgate. Motorcycles can stop in a much shorter distance 보다 cars – under the best conditions. Also, it might be more difficult to notification they room slowing or stopping.If that raining, or dark, provide motorcycles even much more space.

Be careful when you happen a motorcyclist. Favor bicycles, the wait pressure created by vehicles together they quickly pass by can impact motorcycles.



Limited usage motorcycles, often referred to as mopeds, space low speed, 2 or three-wheeled vehicles for minimal use on publicly highways. There room three various classes the mopeds based upon maximum performance speed. The chart listed below describes the requirements for moped operation.

Class B and C mopeds deserve to be driven just in the appropriate lane the traffic, as much to the appropriate as possible. Class A mopeds are allowed to journey in lane and ar of a lane. Mopeds are not allowed on expressways or other controlled access highways uneven posted indicators permit it.

When you method a moped, usage the exact same precautions you would as soon as you approach a bicyclist.


Top speed range mph (km/h)31 come 40(Over 48 come 64)21 come 30(32 come 48)20 or less(32 or less)
Type of patent or learner"s allow required CLASS CLASS 4
Registration requiredYES (A Plate)YES (B Plate)YES (C Plate)
Headlight to it is in on once operatingYESYESYES
Helmet & eye protection required when operating 5YESYESRecommended
Where operation is web traffic Lane & ShoulderRight Hand Lane or Shoulder 1 Right Hand roadway or Shoulder 1 
Mandatory insurance allowance requiredYESYESRecommended 2
Safety responsibility 3 appliesYESYESYES
Annual investigate requiredYESRecommendedRecommended
Title requiredNONONO

1 except when do a left hand turn.

2 If a class C limited use motorcycle is provided in a rental business, insurance allowance is mandatory.

3 Safety duty is the requirement to pay because that or write-up security for damages or personal injury girlfriend may reason in web traffic crash.

4 usual learner"s permit and also junior license limitations apply.

5 Motorcyclists should wear approved motorcycle helmets, as identified by USDOT commonwealth motor vehicle safety requirements (FMVSS 218). To enhance the motorcyclist"s visibility, the recommends that helmets have actually at least four square customs of reflective material on both sides. Motorcyclists must likewise wear authorized eye protection, even if the motorcycle is equipped with a windshield. Prescription or made-to-order security glasses might be provided if the user can existing written certification the they meet standards. The eye protection need to be produced in conformity through the regulations issued by the auto Equipment safety Commission (VESC-8).


In more than 60 percent of all fatal crashes entailing cars and big trucks, the automobile driver, not the van driver, contributes come the cause of the traffic crash. Four out of five times, the is the car driver that is killed. of this crashes can be prevent if chauffeurs know about truck (and bus) limitations and also how to steer totally free from situations that space unsafe and involve huge vehicles.

Large trucks, to chat vehicles and buses room not big cars. The bigger castle are:

The larger their blind spots,The longer it bring away them come stop,The much more room they have to maneuver,The much longer it takes for an auto to happen them.Blind Spots

Different native cars, big vehicles have actually deep remote spots straight behind them. They additionally have much larger blind spots on both sides 보다 cars do. Tractors with long hoods deserve to have a remote spot the 20 feet in prior of the vehicle. You have to avoid this "no zones."



Side blind Spots

Large vehicles have much larger blind point out on both sides. If you journey in these remote spots, you can not be checked out by the driver. Even if the driver to know you are there, if girlfriend remain next to the vehicle it deserve to make it complicated for the driver capacity to prevent a attention situation.

Blind clues in Back

If you remain in the ago blind point out of a large vehicle, you increase the possibility of a crash. The other driver cannot see your car, and also your see of various other traffic will certainly be blocked.

Distance to Stop

Large vehicles take much longer to avoid than smaller vehicles that travel at the exact same speed. For tractor trailers, the difference originates from brake delay. Wait brakes transmit brake power from the tractor come the trailer and also this can add feet come the street it takes come stop. Leave plenty of an are between your car and the truck. If you are in prior of a truck, indicate your intentionally to turn or adjust lanes early. Carry out not do sudden moves.


Ability to maneuver

Large vehicles space not together maneuverable together cars. They take longer to stop and to accelerate and they regularly need to move large to do their turns.

You can reduce the opportunity of a collision v a huge vehicle if you:

Do not cut abruptly in former of the huge vehicle; when you exit, take it a few additional secs to decrease speed and exit behind it; once you pass perform not traction in front of it unless you deserve to see the entirety front that the car in her mirror.Pay close attention to the rotate signals. Due to the fact that trucks make large right turns, they relocate to the left prior to they turn right. Look at the rotate signals.Do not hold-up near a huge vehicle. You might not be visible to the driver in the broad area the truck demands for making a turn.When you pass

When you pass a big vehicle, the takes a longer time and requires much more space than as soon as you happen a car. Top top a two-way road, leave more time and an are when you happen a large vehicle. Make certain you have the right to see the entirety front the the automobile before you return to your lane after friend pass. A big vehicle normally loses speed on a class or a hill. Look far ahead when you drive. If you should pass a big vehicle, be prepared and know once you are near a grade the can cause the other auto to diminish speed. Also, together your own automobile begins a downward grade, the speed of the other automobile can increase significantly. This will rise the time it takes girlfriend to happen it.

When a truck is backing up

Never pass close behind a huge vehicle the is backing up. Frequently a truck driver has to block a road to ago into one area to load or discharge goods. It is in patient!

It is far better to wait until the big vehicle has actually completed its back-up maneuver than to shot to pass. If you shot to pass in this situation, it is likely that friend will get in one the the blind spots. This can make your auto invisible come the driver and increase the danger of a traffic crash.

When you technique a truck

Do not underestimate the size and speed of an draw close tractor-trailer or other big vehicle. Its bigger size will regularly make it appear to relocate at a slower speed than it yes, really is. Also, from a distance it might not appear to be as large as it yes, really is. The other vehicle will frequently reach you prior to you expect! when you journey on a two­ way highway, that is often far better to move as far to the right as feasible to make sure your car will not be fight by an approaching tractor-trailer or other huge vehicle.

When you prevent behind a truck

Always leave an are when you stop in back of a truck or bus at a web traffic light or prevent sign, specifically when you face up a hill. The van or bus could stop or relocate backward slightly once it starts. If girlfriend leave enough room in between your vehicle and also the car ahead, friend usually deserve to pull far from behind and go approximately it.



The "slow-moving vehicle" symbol, a reflective orange triangle, need to be displayed on the ago of vehicles attracted by animals, most farm vehicles, and also construction equipment. The United claims Postal Service additionally requires these orange safety-triangles to be shown on every rural mail delivery vehicles. Usage caution as soon as you strategy a slow-moving vehicle and also make sure it is safe before you pass.


State law enables all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and also snowmobiles come legally go across countless state highways and also local roadways. Prior to they cross, they must come to a stop and yield come traffic. They must go across at a 90-degree edge to the road surface.



Horse riders are subject to, and also protected by, the rule of the road. They likewise must drive single paper near the best curb or road edge, or ~ above a best shoulder, roadway or path that have the right to be used.

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The law requires you to be mindful when you approach a equine being ridden or walked along a road. You need to drive at an acceptable speed and at one acceptable street away native the horse. That is illegal come sound her horn once you technique or pass a horse.



Before you go on to thing 12, make sure you can answer these questions:

How do the remote spots around a big commercial vehicle differ native the blind spots roughly a car?How does the stopping distance that a huge vehicle through air brakes compare v the stopping distance of a car?After you happen a big vehicle, what should you make certain of before you return to the lane of the big vehicle?What is the best an approach to follow once you technique a huge vehicle the is in reverse as it moves toward a loading area?When youngsters are close, what have to you do before you back out that a driveway?How deserve to you identify a blind pedestrian to whom you should yield the appropriate of way?Where should a pedestrian walk as soon as there room no sidewalks?How must you method a bicyclist?Must a bicyclist obey web traffic laws and also signs?Where over there is no bicycle lane, whereby on the road have to a bicyclist ride?What devices must a bicycle have when used at night?

What can a driver perform to be an ext aware the motorcyclists?

 What factors add to motorists not being aware of motorcycles?

 Why room motorcycles harder come see?

 Why is it important for a motorist to be conscious of motorcycles?

May three motorcyclists ride side-by-side in a single lane?What is the slow-moving vehicle symbol?Where space you likely to find an ATV, snowmobile or equine rider?