The mind and spinal cord kind the central nervous system (CNS), and they room surrounded and protected by the bones of the skull and also the vertebral tower (back bone). Between the mind and skull space three various other protective coverings referred to as the meninges, which space special membrane that fully surround the brain and spinal cord.

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Within the mind are the ventricles. Ventricles can be thought of as chambers filled v fluid. Over there are four ventricles in all: 2 lateral ventricles, the 3rd ventricle, and also the 4th ventricle. The ventricles are associated by narrow passageways.


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows v the 4 ventricles and also then flows in between the meninges in an area dubbed the subarachnoid space. CSF cushions the mind and spinal cord against forceful blows, distributes crucial substances, and also carries away waste products.

Under common conditions, a fragile balance exists between the lot of CSF produced and also the rate at which it is absorbed. Our body produce roughly one pint the CSF every day, repeatedly replacing it as it is absorbed.

Hydrocephalus creates when this balance is altered and also is characterized by one abnormal buildup of CSF within the ventricles. This accumulation of CSF boosts the push in the mind causing the ventricles to enlarge and also the mind to be pressed versus the skull.

CSF is primarily developed within the lateral the third ventricles by vulnerable tufts of devoted tissue referred to as the choroid plexus. In part cases, hydrocephalus can build when the choroid plexus produce too lot CSF. This can take place when there is a tumor on the choroid plexus, because that example.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles v two small passageways into the 3rd ventricle. Native the third ventricle, it flows down an additional long passageway known as the aqueduct of Sylvius into the 4th ventricle. From the 4th ventricle, it passes with three little openings dubbed foramina and also into the subarachnoid an are surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. If the circulation of CSF at any of these points is blocked, hydrocephalus can develop. This is regularly referred to together non-communicating hydrocephalus.

It has actually traditionally been believed that CSF is soaked up through tiny, devoted cell clusters called arachnoid villi close to the top and midline the the brain. The CSF then passes through the arachnoid villi right into the superior sagittal sinus, a big vein, and also is took in into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, it is carried away and filtered by the kidneys and also liver in the same method as various other bodily fluids. However, much more recent research study has displayed that CSF is also soaked up through various other pathways together well. Once CSF absorb is blocked or reduced, hydrocephalus can develop. This is often referred to together communicating hydrocephalus because there is no evident blockage in ~ the ventricular system.

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