d. Fins progressed in whales and fish since of various mutations that developed in their genomes.
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e. Fins developed in whales and also fish because their most recent usual ancestor swam in water.
My price is (c). That the provided options, it seems many accurate. Ns feel the the language is unsure as numerous organisms who carry out not have actually fins swimming in water. That deserve to be a logic against the option. But, the given answer is (d). That seems too bizarre as also humans and fishes have different mutations in their genomes. (c) seems an ext appropriate as it deserve to exemplify convergent evolution.
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Short answerd) is certainly correct.
BackgroundThe critical element is that whales reverted from land come the sea and re-evolved fins.b) is incorrect, as they may share some mutations but overall they have really different mutations and very different genomes altogether, being fish and mammals;c) is incorrect as they have to construct fins an initial before they can use them;d) is correct, together the emphasis in the price is top top
Fins advanced in whales and fish since of different mutations that occurred in their genomes.
Fins in whales have developed from arms and also feet. Therefore there are different mutations going on, together fish don"t have actually arms and also feet.
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I agree through you the the concern is ambiguous, and likewise that the most wise answer would certainly be C. However, one could do a much more or less reasonable discussion in favor of several various other answers, too.
a. The typical ancestor the whales and also fish possessed genes for fins.
Technically, this explain is true. At the very least some the the fin of whales and also fish are also distantly homologous, even though the lineages resulting in tetrapods (including whales) and also to ray-finned fishes diverged quite at an early stage in your evolutionary history.
(Specifically, the flippers the whales room modified tetrapod forelimbs, which are homologous to the pectoral fins of ray-finned fishes. Whether one should additionally consider the tails fins of whales and fish to it is in homologous is a bit an ext debatable: the really fin structures are an extremely different, and also presumably share couple of if any type of developmental pathways, yet the tail and the spinal pillar which they affix to and are powered by is clearly a shared function of both groups.)
However, while mutual evolutionary history may describe why fish and also whales have an in similar way placed flippers / pectoral fins, and why they both have actually a functional spine that supports undulatory swimming v the assist of a tail fin, it does not describe the convergent evolution of whales" forelimbs (which to be formerly adapted for go on land) into fin-like flippers. So in the sense, when perhaps partially correct, this price is additionally quite incomplete.
b. Whales and fish possess the very same mutations in your genomes.
It"s difficult to also tell what this explain means. Insofar together it"s a restatement of the reality that whales and fish share some of their evolutionary background (up to the aberration of the bone-finned and also ray-finned fishes), it"s no an ext or less correct than statement A above.
However, I suspect that the intended definition of this statement is the whales and (ray-finned) fish would"ve separately advanced the same "fin-making" mutations after your lineages diverges, i beg your pardon is both clearly incorrect and also also, also prima facie, statistically an extremely unlikely. So i would preeminence this one out.
c. Fins progressed in whales and also fish because they both use them come swim in water.
This declare is written making use of teleological language, which part may consider misleading, together it might be misinterpreted as implying that advancement was a command process: it could be taken as saying the whales required to have the ability to swim, so they chose to evolve fin (or that some guiding consciousness granted lock fins). This is, that course, not correct — or, in ~ least, we have actually no scientific proof of over there being any kind of such mindful force guiding evolution, or of any organism (with the arguable exception of humans) gift able to deliberately direct their own evolution.
However, it"s quite feasible to translate this statement in a method that makes it perfect correct: as both whales and also fish move about by swimming, possessing fins (or something comparable to fins) is an valuable trait for them, and also has thus been favored by herbal selection. If pressed, I would thus select this one together the most correct answer out of the given options.
In particular, note that the argument made by AliceD that "they have actually to build fins an initial before they can use them" is no really true: the ancestors the both whales and also fish were swimming long before they developed fins, and also thus the choice pressure in donate of having actually fins (or fin-like structures) was already present before the fins themselves evolved.
In particular, the very first aquatic ancestors that whales are believed to have actually swum lot like contemporary otters and also seals, utilizing their flipper-like limbs together makeshift fins. When there"s no discrete transition point whereby one could certainly say the whale four turned into appropriate fins, it is clear the the fins, and their straight evolutionary predecessors, were being proactively used because that swimming, and that this fact straight drove their advancement into the actual fins that contemporary whales have.
d. Fins evolved in whales and also fish due to the fact that of different mutations that arisen in your genomes.
While technically correct, this statement is therefore vague that it"s all yet meaningless. All advancement is pushed by mutations, and those mutations, being usually random, are seldom if ever before the exact same in any kind of two lineages.
Certainly, it would be silly to claim that "different mutations arising in your genomes" is one explanation of why whales and fish progressed fins: humans additionally constantly have different mutations developing in our genomes, but we plainly don"t it seems to be ~ to be evolving fins. Neither room pigs or bumblebees or sunflowers, even though every one of those species (and, that course, all others too) are likewise constantly experiencing different mutations in their genomes.
Really, this price reminds me that the story about a person in a automobile who gets lost and also stops to ask a passerby where they are; the passerby, after a moment"s thought, replies "you"re in your car." when technically correct, the answer is for sure useless — and also so is this one, too.
e. Fins developed in whales and also fish because their many recent typical ancestor swam in water.
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Again, this prize could be construed as usually a restatement of price A, and thus as being partially correct. However, it completely ignores the convergent selection pressure defined in price C, which is responsible for the more recent development of whale flippers into something resembling fish fins much more than, say, person hands or the feet of hippopotamuses (currently believed to it is in the closest living loved ones of whales and other cetaceans). Thus, I would not pick this answer, because that the same factor that ns wouldn"t pick answer A.