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Objective inquiries 1. Native which parts of the human being did immigrants come to the US? 2. Because that what reasons did they journey to America?




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Through the golden Door • millions of immigrants came for a better life • part came from southern and also eastern Europe, about 1 million native Italy, Austria. Hungary, and Russia • some left come escape spiritual persecution, climbing population, land to be scarce, too few jobs • most Europeans arrived at the east shore


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• on the west coast, Chinese arrived • some came for gold sirloin in CA, develop RR, after that they farmed or domestic business • In 1898, Hawaii was annexed and planters recruited Japanese workers • This increased Japanese immigration on the west coast


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• Immigrants likewise arrived native West Indies (Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and also other islands) • mexicans immigrated to discover work and also flee political chaos


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Analyzing reasons 3. What factors did world from various other parts of the civilization have because that immigrating come the US? • Answer: • The desire to escape problems such together land shortages, famine, and political or spiritual persecution; the possibility of land, jobs, or greater wages


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Objective concerns 8. What difficulties did immigrants challenge on their journey to the US? 9. What were the differences and similarities between the two US immigrant centers? 10. Just how did plenty of immigrants cope after arriving in America?


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Life in the brand-new Land • Immigrants faced adjustments to an alien society • They had actually to pass inspection in ~ stations such together Ellis Island in brand-new York • They to be denied if they had disease or didn’t accomplish legal demands such as: never ever being convicted of a felony, gift able come work, reflecting they had actually some money


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• point of view Island to be on the west coast in san Francisco only • greatly Asians- mostly Chinese • They challenged harsh questioning and long detentions


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vocabulary • Tuberculosis- a bacter infection, characterized by fever and coughing, the spreads quickly • Felony- any type of one that the most serious crimes under the law, consisting of murder, rape, and burglary


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Identifying problems 11. What difficulties did immigrants confront in obtaining admission to the US? • Answer: • Medical and administrative inspections and, on point of view Island, harsh questioning and also detention


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• Immigrants had actually to uncover a place to live, gain a job, try to learn a new language and society • Ethnic communities were vital • They assisted one another • immigrant were frequently viewed together a threat to the American means of life


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Summarizing 5. Exactly how did immigrants resolve challenges they faced? • Answer: • They helped one another, forming ethnic enclaves, society clubs, and aid societies • vocabulary: • Synagogue- location of conference for worship and religious instruction in the Jewish belief


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Objective questions 13. What walk nativists believe? 14. Exactly how did the Chinese exclusion Act and the Gentlemen’s commitment limit asian immigration?


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Immigration restrictions • Americans believed of the us as a melting pot, a mix of people of different cultures and also races who mixed together by abandoning their indigenous languages and customs • many immigrants didn’t desire to give up their social identities


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• together immigration boosted to walk nativism • It was overt favoritism toward native-born american • gave rise come antiimmigrant group and also immigration restrictions


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Vocabulary • Progressive- favoring development toward better conditions or brand-new ideas


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Anti-Asian emotion • Nativism had hold in the labor activity in the West • Native-born workers feared their work would go to Chinese immigrants, who would accept lower wages • A depression struggle in 1873 the made jobs scarce • Labor groups put press on gov’t come restrict eastern immigration


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• 1882, Congress stopped Chinese immigrant for 10 years with the Chinese exclusion Act • it banned entry to every Chinese, other than students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and gov’t public official • that was later on extended and didn’t gain repealed till 1943


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Gentlemen’s agreement • Anti-Chinese sentiment quickly spread come Japanese and also other asian people in the early 1900 s • mountain Francisco segregated Japanese youngsters by placing them in separate colleges • Japanese protested and also Pres. Teddy Roosevelt involved a deal


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• Gentlemen’s Agreement, Japan’s gov’t agreed to limit emigration of unskilled employees to the united state in exchange for the repeal of the san Fran distinction order • eastern immigration slowed on the West Coast but cities in the east and also Midwest teemed v European immigrant


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Section 2 challenges of Urbanization


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Bellringer • What would it be choose for you to readjust to institution in a international country? indicate ways that you might assist a international student adjust to college in the united state • https: //www. Youtube. Com/watch? v=RRhjqqe 750 A


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Objective inquiries • Why did countless immigrants clear up in the country cities? • What to be the score of the Americanization movement? • because that what factors did a variety of Americans move from the country to the cities?


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Urban opportunities • technology boom in the 19 th century added to the fast industrialization, development of cities, largely in NE and Midwest • Immigrants resolved in urban b/c it to be cheaper and an ext convenient • Cities available unskilled work in mills and factories


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• In 1890 there were twice as plenty of Irish in NYC 보다 Dublin • 1910, immigrant family members made up more than half the total population of 18 significant American cities


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• The Americanization activity was designed come assimilate civilization of diff cultures into the dominant society • the was funded by the gov’t and concerned citizen • Schools and also associations teach immigrants skills they necessary for citizenship, such as finding out English, background and gov’t • Cooking and also social etiquette was contained


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Analyzing motives • Why go native-born americans state the Americanization movement? • Answer: • to encourage newcomers to assimilate right into the dominant society


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• plenty of immigrants didn’t want to give up their heritages • ethnic communities listed support • This aided them to speak their own language and practice their customs and religion • these neighborhoods came to be crowded as new immigrants kept showing up


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Geography Skillbuilder • page 263 in textbook


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Migration from nation to City • improvements for agriculture made it an ext efficient yet meant fewer laborers needed • Rural civilization moved to cities to look for job-related • plenty of southern farmers who lost their livelihoods were AA • moved to escape racial violence, financial hardship and political be suppressive • conditions were just somewhat far better


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Objective questions • What to be the housing troubles that many negative city dwellers faced? • What other challenges did immigrants and poor inhabitants encounter?


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Housing • 2 options: • buy a residence on the outskirts of town and also face transportation issues • rental cramped rooms in a boardinghouse in the main city • new housing such together row houses- single-family residences that mutual side wall surfaces with comparable houses, packed numerous residents into a solitary block


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• immigrants lived 2 or three households to a house • these multifamily urban houses were referred to as tenements • There were crowded and unsanitary


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• What housing difficulties did metropolitan working course families face? • Answer: • transportation difficulties, overcrowding, and also unsanitary problems


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Transportation • technologies in mass transit, transportation solution designed come move large numbers of human being along resolved routes, enabled workers to go to and also from jobs easily • countless linked communities to one another and also to other communities • urban struggled to repair old ones and to build new ones to fulfill the population demand


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Water • for sure drinking water was essential • many cities built waterworks to handle demand • However, many cities had residences without indoor pipes so residents had to collection water native faucets in the street and also heat it because that bathing


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• Water quality had actually to be improved to prevent condition such together cholera and also typhoid fever • Filtration to be introduced and chlorination after that • Chlorination- a an approach of wash and clean water by mixing it with chlorine


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Sanitation • it was tough to save cities clean • horse manure piled up on streets, sewer flowed through gutters, factory spewed foul smoke in the waiting • No dependable trash collection, people just dumped their garbage in the street • by 1900, cities had developed sewer lines and also created sanitation depts yet sanitation continued to be an concern


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• how did conditions in cities influence people’s health? • Answer: • absence of clean water and also inadequate sanitation spread disease


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crime • Pickpockets and also thieves thrived • NYC organized the very first full-time, salaried police force • many other city legislation enforcement units were too little to have actually much influence on crime


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Fire • minimal water supply aided spread fires • Fires arisen in every big city in the 1870 s and also 1880 s • most cities had actually wooden houses • usage of candles and kerosene heaters make a risk • The production of fire depts and also automatic fire sprinklers assisted • Brick, rock and concrete likewise made cities much safer


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Objective concerns • What to be the social Gospel movement? • What to be the function of settlement houses? • who was woman Addams?


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Reformers Mobilize • social gospel movement preached salvation through company to the poor • reformers est settlement houses, community centers in slum areas that detailed assistance to world in the area, esp immigrants • https: //www. Youtube. Com/watch? v=6 rw. WN 9 Gy. GTw


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• Ran by middle-class, college-educated ladies • listed educational, cultural, and social solutions • additionally visited nursing homes and also aided them • mrs Addams was among the most influential members and founded full House in Chicago • aided to cultivate social obligation toward the urban poor


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Bellringer • https: //www. Youtube. Com/watch? v=Spgdy 3 H kc. Ss • Crash food gilded age politics


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Objective inquiries • What to be a politics machine? • What to be the duty of the political boss? • What function did immigrant play in the national politics of many huge cities?


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The emergence of Political machines • Cities had actually inefficient governments • There was a brand-new power structure, the political machine, and also a brand-new politician, the city boss


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The Political device • one organized group that controlled the activities of a politics party in a city • readily available services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and also financial support


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• base were neighborhood workers and also captains that tried to get voters’ assistance on a city block or neighborhood and also reported to a ward ceo • Ward boss secured the vote in the electoral ar • Ward bosses helped the poor and also gained votes by act favors or giving services


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Summarizing • In what way did the structure of the political maker resemble a pyramid? • Answer: • many local precinct workers and also captains formed the basic of the organization. In the middle were ward bosses. At the peak was one city boss.


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The role Of The Political boss • The ceo controlled access to municipal jobs and also business licenses, and also influenced the courts and also other municipal organ • Some developed parks, drain systems, waterworks, and gave money to schools, hospitals, and also orphanages • by solving problems they reinforced voters’ loyalty, win extr political support, and also extend their influence


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Immigrants and the maker • most precinct captains and also bosses were an initial or second-generation immigrant • couple of had much more than grammar school education and learning • Started into politics young and also Worked increase from the bottom • They supported immigrants and helped them get citizenship and also in turn got their votes


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Analyzing engine • Why did immigrants support political machines? • Answer: • since the machines can provides solutions to the immigrants’ many pressing problems


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Objective questions • What method did plenty of political devices use to maintain power? • for what reasons was the Tweed Ring therefore notorious?


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Municipal Graft and also Scandal • Political devices turn come fraud to success elections • when a device got candidates in office, it could take benefit of numerous opportunities or graft, the illegal use of political influence for an individual gain • makers granted favors to businesses for cash, ex: permitting gambling • Cops didn’t prevent it b/c they to be employed by makers


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The Tweed Ring Scandal • ceo Tweed to be head the Tammany hall • The Tweed Ring was a group of corrupt political leaders defrauding the city


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Objective questions • What were the consequences of the patronage system? • What political reform initiatives did Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur undertake? • What to be the Pendleton Civil organization Act?


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Civil organization Replaces Patronage • Patronage is the providing of federal government jobs to civilization who had actually helped a candidate get chosen • the was also known together the spoils mechanism • Cabinet workers to world who scrubbed the Capitol procedures owed their jobs to political connections • part gov’t workers weren’t default for their positions


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• Some offered their positions for personal gain • Reformers wanted to eliminate the exercise and take on a merit system for rental • tasks in polite service- federal government administration- should go to the most qualified


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Analyzing reasons • how did patronage contribute to government incompetence and fraud? • Answer: • By permitting people to be hired for federal government jobs on the basis of political beliefs rather than ability, and by providing opportunities for the misuse of influence


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Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and also Arthur • Civil service reform made progression under this presidents • Hayes couldn’t to convince Congress to assistance reform therefore he named independents to the cabinet • the also collection up a commission to investigate the country customhouses, which were centers the patronage


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• Hayes fired two peak officials • This tease the Republican senator and also political ceo Roscoe Conkling and his supporters, the Stalwarts • Hayes didn’t operation for reelection and chaos broke out at the Republican convention, between the Stalwarts- that opposed alters in the spoils system- and the reformers


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• Neither team won a majority so the convention settled on James Garfield • Chester Arthur was nominated together VP • Garfield to be assassinated by a Stalwart • Arthur took over and also urged conference to happen a civil company law


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• The an outcome was the Pendleton organization Act • the authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appts come federal tasks though a merit system and also performance


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Objective inquiries • where did Cleveland Harrison was standing on the tariff issue? • What was the Mc. Kinley Tariff plot of 1890? • What taken place to tariffs as soon as Cleveland was reelected, and how did things readjust when Mc. Kinley take it office?




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Business Buys affect • huge business want to maintain or advanced the tariffs that safeguarded domestic sectors from foreign competition • Democrats opposed high tariffs b/c it increased prices • 1884, Dem Grover Cleveland to be elected and tried to lower tariffs yet lacked Congressional assistance


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• that ran because that reelection versus Ben Harrison • Harrison was financed by companies that wanted tariffs higher • the won and raised tariffs ~ above manufactured items