10.2 Introduction to the Integumentary System

Created by CK-12 Foundation/Adapted by Christine Miller

Figure 10.2.1 The body as a canvas.

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Pictured in figure 10.2.1, is Maud Stevens Wagner, a tattoo artist indigenous 1907. Tattoos are not simply a late 20th and also early 21st century trend. They have actually been popular in plenty of eras and cultures. Tattoos literally show the best organ the the human body: the skin. The skin is really thin, however it consist of a big area — around 2 m2 in adults. The skin is the major organ in the integumentary system.

In addition to the skin, the integumentary system includes the hair and nails, which space organs that grow out that the skin. Because the organs of the integumentary system are mostly exterior to the body, you might think that them together little much more than accessories, like clothing or jewelry, yet they serve an essential physiological functions. They provide a protective spanning for the body, sense the environment, and assist the body maintain homeostasis.

The skin is amazing not only because it is the body’s largest organ: the median square customs of skin has 20 blood vessels, 650 sweat glands, and more than 1,000 nerve endings. Incredibly, it also has 60,000 pigment-producing cells. All of these structures are packed into a ridge of cells the is simply 2 mm thick. Back the skin is thin, it consists of two unique layers: the epidermis and also dermis, as shown in the chart (Figure 10.2.2).

Figure 10.2.2 The epidermis is the thinner outer layer of skin, and also the dermis is the more thick inner class of skin. The latter has structures such as blood vessels and sweat glands.

Outer great of Skin

The external layer the skin is the epidermis. This great is thinner 보다 the inner class (the dermis). The epidermis is composed mainly of epithelial cells, called keratinocytes, which develop the tough, fibrous protein keratin. The innermost cells of the epidermis space stem cells that divide continuously to form new cells. The newly formed cells relocate up v the epidermis toward the skin surface, if producing an ext and more keratin. The cells end up being filled v keratin and die by the moment they with the surface, whereby they form a protective, waterproof layer. As the dead cell are melted from the surface of the skin, castle are replaced by various other cells that move up indigenous below. The epidermis also contains melanocytes, the cells that develop the brown colours melanin, which offers skin most of that is colour. Although the epidermis contains some sensory receptor cells — called Merkel cell — it contains no nerves, blood vessels, or other structures.

Inner class of Skin

The dermis is the inner, thicker layer of skin. It consists mainly of challenging connective tissue, and also is attached to the epidermis by collagen fibres. The dermis contains many structures (as displayed in number 10.2.2), consisting of blood vessels, sweat glands, and hair follicles, which are structures whereby hairs originate. In addition, the dermis contains many sensory receptors, nerves, and oil glands.

Functions that the Skin

The skin has actually multiple roles in the body. Numerous of these functions are connected to homeostasis. The skin’s main functions are preventing water loss from the body and serving together a obstacle to the entry of microorganisms. Another duty of the skin is synthesizing vitamin D, i m sorry occurs once the skin is exposed come ultraviolet (UV) light. Melanin in the epidermis blocks few of the UV light and also protects the dermis native its damaging effects.

Another important duty of the skin is help to manage body temperature. As soon as the human body is too warm, for example, the skin lowers human body temperature by producing sweat, which cools the body as soon as it evaporates. The skin additionally increases the lot of blood flowing near the body surface ar through vasodilation (widening the blood vessels), bringing warm from the body main point to radiate out into the environment. The sweaty hair and flushed skin of the young man pictured in figure 10.2.3 reflect this skin responses come overheating.

Figure 10.2.3 Both sweating and flushing the the skin are signs that the skin is working to cool the body.
Figure 10.2.4 Eyelashes defend the eyes.

Hair is a fibre found only in mammals. It consists mainly the keratin-producing keratinocytes. Every hair grows the end of a follicle in the dermis. By the moment the hair reaches the surface, it consists mainly that dead cell filled v keratin. Hair serves number of homeostatic functions. Head hair is important in preventing heat loss indigenous the head and also protecting its skin native UV radiation. Hairs in the nose trap dust particles and microorganisms in the air, and prevent lock from getting to the lungs. Hair all over the body offers sensory input once objects brush versus it, or once it sways in relocating air. Eyelashes and also eyebrows (see number 10.2.4) defend the eye from water, dirt, and other irritants.

Fingernails and toenails consist of dead keratinocytes filled through keratin. The keratin renders them hard but flexible, which is crucial for the functions they serve. Nails prevent injury by forming protective plates end the end of the fingers and also toes. They also enhance sensation by acting as a counterforce come the sensitive fingertips when objects space handled. In addition, the fingernails have the right to be provided as tools.

The skin and also other components of the integumentary device work through other body organ systems come maintain homeostasis.

The skin works v the immune mechanism to safeguard the human body from pathogens by serving together a physical barrier to microorganisms.Vitamin D is necessary by the digestive system to absorb calcium native food. By manufacturing vitamin D, the skin works through the digestive system to ensure that calcium have the right to be absorbed.To manage body temperature, the skin works v the cardiovascular system to either shed body heat, or to conserve it through vasodilation or vasoconstriction.To detect details sensations indigenous the outside world, the nervous system depends on nerve receptors in the skin.
The integumentary system is composed of the skin, hair, and also nails. Attributes of the integumentary system include providing a protective spanning for the body, sensing the environment, and also helping the body maintain homeostasis.The skin consists of two unique layers: a thinner outer layer dubbed the epidermis, and also a thicker inner layer referred to as the dermis.The epidermis is composed mainly that epithelial cells dubbed keratinocytes, which produce keratin. New keratinocytes kind at the bottom that the epidermis. They end up being filled with keratin and die as they relocate upward toward the surface of the skin, where they type a protective, waterproof layer.The dermis consists mainly of tough connective tissues and numerous structures, including blood vessels, sensory receptors, nerves, hair follicles, and oil and sweat glands.The skin’s main functions are preventing water loss indigenous the body, serving as a barrier to the entry of microorganisms, synthesizing vitamin D, impede UV light, and helping to control body temperature.Hair consists mainly the dead keratinocytes and grows the end of follicles in the dermis. Hair helps prevent heat loss from the head, and protects its skin from UV light. Hair in the sleep filters just arrive air, and also the eyelashes and eyebrows store harmful substances the end of the eyes. Hair anywhere the body gives tactile sensory input.Like hair, nails also consist mainly of dead keratinocytes. They aid protect the end of the fingers and also toes, enhance the sense of touch in the fingertips, and may be supplied as tools.
Name the offal of the integumentary system.Compare and contrast the epidermis and dermis.Identify attributes of the skin.
What is the composition of hair?Describe 3 physiological duties played by hair.What carry out nails consist of of?List two attributes of nails.In state of composition, what carry out the outermost surface ar of the skin, the nails, and hair have actually in common?Identify two varieties of cells discovered in the epidermis that the skin. Explain their functions.Which structure and also layer the skin does hair prosper out of?Identify 3 main features of the integumentary system. Give an instance of each.What are two ways in i beg your pardon the integumentary system protects the body versus UV radiation?

The scientific research of skin – Emma Bryce, TED-Ed, 2018.

Why do we need to wear sunscreen? – Kevin P. Boyd, TED-Ed, 2013.

Scarification | nationwide Geographic, 2008.


Figure 10.2.1

Maud_Stevens_Wagner -The Plaza Gallery, Los Angeles, 1907 from the Library of conference on Wikimedia Commons is in the public domain (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public_domain).

Figure 10.2.2

Anatomy_The_Skin_-_NCI_Visuals_Online through Don Bliss (artist) from nationwide Cancer Institute, top top Wikimedia Commons is in the public domain (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public_domain).

Figure 10.2.3

shashank-shekhar-Db1J_qp_ctc by Shashank Shekhar top top Unsplash is supplied under the Unsplash license (https://unsplash.com/license).

Figure 10.2.4

Eyelashes by aryan-dhiman-93NBu0zG_H4 by Aryan Dhiman ~ above Unsplash is offered under the Unsplash license (https://unsplash.com/license).


National Geographic. (2008). Scarification | national Geographic. YouTube. Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lfhot7tQcWs&t=1s

TED-Ed. (2018, march 12). The science of skin – Emma Bryce. YouTube. Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxPlCkTKhzY&feature=youtu.be

TED-Ed. (2013, august 6). Why do we need to wear sunscreen? – Kevin P. Boyd. YouTube. Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSJITdsTze0&feature=youtu.be

The human body system consisted of of skin and also its appendages acting to safeguard the human body from miscellaneous kinds the damage, such together loss that water or loss from outside.

The significant organ the the integumentary system that covers and protects the body and helps maintain homeostasis, for example, by regulating body temperature.

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The external layer that skin that consists mainly the epithelial cells and also lacks nerve endings, blood vessels, and also other structures.