Bismuth

Element 83 of Periodic table is Bismuth with atomic number 83, atomic weight 208.98038. Bismuth, symbol Bi, has a Base Centered Monoclinic structure and Gray color. Bismuth is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Bismuth is pentels, pnictogens*. Know everything about Bismuth Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores.

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Bismuth Facts

Read key information and facts about element Bismuth

Name Bismuth
Atomic Number 83
Atomic Symbol Bi
Atomic Weight 208.98038
Phase Solid
Color Gray
Classification post-transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 15
Group Name nitrogen family
Period in Periodic Table 6
Block in Periodic Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Melting Point 271.3 °C
Boiling Point 1564 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5>
CAS Number CAS7440-69-9

Neighborhood
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Bismuth on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 83 to find Bismuth on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Bismuth on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trends

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Bismuth with other elements

Bismuth History

The element Bismuth was discovered by Claude François Geoffroy in year 1400 in unknown place . Bismuth derived its name from German word, now obsolete

Bismuth Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Bismuth in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 2.5×10-6%
Abundance in Oceans 2×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Bismuth

The solid state structure of Bismuth is Base Centered Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
667.4 611.7 330.4 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 1.925622 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name C12/m1
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Space Group Number 12
Crystal Structure Base Centered Monoclinic

Bismuth Atomic and Orbital Properties

Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.


Atomic Number 83
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 83
Number of Protons 83
Mass Number 209
Number of Neutrons 126
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5>
Electron Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Valence Electrons 6s2 6p3
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2

Shell Structure of Bismuth - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Bismuth - neutral Bismuth atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Bismuth atom is 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. The portion of Bismuth configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Bismuth

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Bismuth atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

Atomic Structure of Bismuth

Bismuth atomic radius is 143 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 146 pm.

Atomic Radius

143 pm (1.43 Å)

Atomic Volume 21.3681370143 cm3
Covalent Radius 146 pm (1.46 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.034 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Bismuth

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Bismuth Chemical Properties: Bismuth Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Bismuth is 91.2 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.02
ElectronAffinity 91.2 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Bismuth

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Bismuth

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 703
2 1610
3 2466
4 4370
5 5.4×103
6 8520

Bismuth Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Bismuth Physical Properties

Density 9.78 g/cm3
Molar Volume 21.3681370143 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 32 GPa
Shear Modulus 12 GPa
Bulk Modulus 31 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.33

Hardness of Bismuth - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.25 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 94.2 MPa

Bismuth Electrical Properties

Bismuth is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Bismuth

Electrical Conductivity 7.7×105 S/m
Resistivity 1.3×10-6 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Bismuth Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000134 K-1

Bismuth Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.6×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -0.00017

Optical Properties of Bismuth

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Bismuth

Speed of Sound 1790 m/s

Bismuth Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Bismuth

Melting Point 544.4 K (271.3 °C)
Boiling Point 1837 K (1564 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Bismuth

Heat of Fusion 10.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 160 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Bismuth Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Bismuth

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Bismuth has 1 stable isotope - None.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
184Bi
185Bi
186Bi
187Bi
188Bi
189Bi
190Bi
191Bi
192Bi
193Bi
194Bi
195Bi
196Bi
197Bi
198Bi
199Bi
200Bi
201Bi
202Bi
203Bi
204Bi
205Bi
206Bi
207Bi
208Bi
209Bi 100%
210Bi
211Bi
212Bi
213Bi
214Bi
215Bi
216Bi
217Bi
218Bi

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-69-9
RTECS Number RTECSEB2600000
DOT Hazard Class 6.1
DOT Numbers 3080
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-69-9
CID Number CID5359367
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSEB2600000

Compare Bismuth with all Group 15 elements

Bismuth vs Nitrogen Bismuth vs Phosphorus Bismuth vs Arsenic Bismuth vs Antimony Bismuth vs Moscovium

Compare Bismuth with all post-transition metal elements

Bismuth vs Aluminium Bismuth vs Gallium Bismuth vs Indium Bismuth vs Tin Bismuth vs Thallium Bismuth vs Lead Bismuth vs Nihonium Bismuth vs Flerovium Bismuth vs Moscovium Bismuth vs Livermorium