Germanium

facet 32 of routine table is Germanium with atomic number 32, atomic weight 72.64. Germanium, price Ge, has actually a Face centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Germanium is a metalloid element. Trivial surname of Germanium is tetrels, crystallogens. Understand everything about Germanium Facts, physical Properties, chemistry Properties, electronic configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


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Germanium is a chemical facet with prize Ge and also atomic number 32. That is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically comparable to its team neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.

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Germanium Facts

Read an essential information and facts about element Germanium

name Germanium
atom Number 32
atomic Symbol Ge
Atomic load 72.64
phase Solid
color Gray
Classification metalloid
team in regular Table 14
Group Name carbon household
duration in routine Table 4
Block in routine Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p2
Melting suggest 938.3 °C
Boiling suggest 2820 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 18, 4>
CAS Number CAS7440-56-4

ar
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

discover our interactive periodic table


How to find Germanium on periodic Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atom number, variety of protons in the nucleus which is very same as variety of electrons. The atomic number rises from left to right. Regular table beginning at height left ( atom number 1) and ends in ~ bottom right (atomic number 118). Thus you can straight look because that atomic number 32 to discover Germanium on regular table.

Another means to read periodic table and also locate an aspect is by using team number (column) and period number (row). To locate Germanium on periodic table look for cross section of team 14 and period 4 in the contemporary periodic table.

discover Interactive routine Table come Understand and also Learn Cool patterns

Table the Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Germanium with other elements

Germanium History

The facet Germanium was uncovered by Clemens Winkler in year 1886 in Germany . Germanium acquired its surname from Germania, the Latin name for Germany

Germanium Presence: abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the diversity of Germanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
variety in world 2e-07
variety in sunlight 2e-07
diversity in Meteorites 2.1e-05
Abundance in Earth"s late 1.4e-06
diversity in seas 6×10-9%
abundance in people N/A

Crystal framework of Germanium

The heavy state structure of Germanium is Face centered Cubic.

The crystal structure deserve to be explained in regards to its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats chin in 3 dimensional an are to form the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cell is stood for in terms of its lattice parameters, which room the lengths of the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and also c)

a b c
565.75 565.75 565.75 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angle (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms within the unit cabinet are defined by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured native a recommendation lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the decision are explained by the principle of an are groups. All possible symmetric kinds of particles in three-dimensional room are explained by the 230 space groups (219 unique types, or 230 if chiral duplicates are considered distinct.

an are Group surname Fm_ 3m
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space Group Number 225
Crystal framework Face focused Cubic

Germanium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and also the electronic shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 4> v Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.


atomic Number 32
Number of electrons (with no charge) 32
Number that Protons 32
Mass Number 73
Number of Neutrons 41
Shell framework (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 4>
Electron construction 3d10 4s2 4p2
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p2
Oxidation State -4;-3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell framework of Germanium - electron per power level


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Ground State digital Configuration the Germanium - neutral Germanium atom

The ground state digital configuration the Neutral Germanium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p2. The section of Germanium configuration that is indistinguishable to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . Because that atoms with countless electrons, this notation have the right to become an extensive and for this reason an abbreviated notation is used.This is necessary as the is the Valence electron 3d10 4s2 4p2, electron in the outermost covering that identify the chemistry properties that the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Germanium

Complete ground state digital configuration for the Germanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2

Atomic framework of Germanium

Germanium atom radius is 125 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 122 pm.

atomic Radius

125 afternoon (1.25 Å)

Atomic Volume 13.6464399775 cm3
Covalent Radius 122 afternoon (1.22 Å)
van der Waals Radius N/A
neutron Cross ar 2.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum that Germanium

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Germanium chemical Properties: Germanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity that Germanium is 119 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.01
ElectronAffinity 119 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of Germanium

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies of Germanium

Ionization power number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 762
2 1537.5
3 3302.1
4 4411
5 9020

Germanium physics Properties

Refer to listed below table for Germanium physics Properties

thickness 5.323 g/cm3
Molar Volume 13.6464399775 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
mass Modulus N/A
Poisson ratio N/A

Hardness that Germanium - test to measure of Hardness the Element

Mohs Hardness 6 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Germanium electrical Properties

Germanium is Semiconductor the electricity. Refer to table listed below for the electrical properties that Germanium

electrical Conductivity 2×103 S/m
Resistivity 0.0005 m Ω
Superconducting allude N/A

Germanium Heat and Conduction Properties

thermal Conductivity 60 W/(m K)
Thermal growth 6×10-6 K-1

Germanium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Diamagnetic
Curie point N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -7.98×10-6

Optical properties of Germanium

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic nature of Germanium

speed of Sound 5.4×103 m/s

Germanium thermal Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer come table below for heat properties that Germanium

Melting suggest 1211.4 K (938.3 °C)
Boiling suggest 3093 K (2820 °C)
crucial Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude N/A

Enthalpies of Germanium

warm of blend 31.8 kJ/mol
heat of Vaporization 334 kJ/mol
heat of burning -536 J/(kg K)

Germanium isotopes - atom Properties that Germanium

Isotopes the rhodium. Naturally occurring Germanium has 4 secure isotope - 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge.


Isotope Isotope massive % variety T half Decay mode
58Ge
59Ge
60Ge
61Ge
62Ge
63Ge
64Ge
65Ge
66Ge
67Ge
68Ge
69Ge
70Ge 20.84% steady N/A
71Ge
72Ge 27.54% secure N/A
73Ge 7.73% steady N/A
74Ge 36.28% secure N/A
75Ge
76Ge 7.61%
77Ge
78Ge
79Ge
80Ge
81Ge
82Ge
83Ge
84Ge
85Ge
86Ge
87Ge
88Ge
89Ge

Regulatory and also Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-56-4
RTECS Number RTECSLY5200000
dot Hazard course 4.1
dot Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA dangers N/A
NFPA health and wellness Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of distinct identifiers to find the element in assorted chemical it is registered databases

Database i would number
CAS Number - chemical Abstracts company (CAS) CAS7440-56-4
CID Number CID6326954
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLY5200000

Compare Germanium v all Group 14 elements

Germanium vs Carbon Germanium vs Silicon Germanium vs tin Germanium vs lead Germanium vs Flerovium

Compare Germanium through all metalloid elements

Germanium vs Boron Germanium vs Silicon Germanium vs Arsenic Germanium vs Antimony Germanium vs Tellurium Germanium vs Polonium