The Atom and Electromagnetic Radiation

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Fundamental Subatomic Particles Electromagnetic Radiation
Light and Other creates of Electromagnetic Radiation

Particle Symbol Charge Mass
electron e- -1 0.0005486 amu
proton p+ +1 1.007276 amu
neutron no 0 1.008665 amu

The number of protons, neutrons, and also electrons in an atom deserve to be identified from a collection of simple rules.

The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom is equal to the atom number (Z). The number of electrons in a neutral atom is same to the variety of protons. The mass variety of the atom (M) is equal to the amount of the variety of protons and also neutrons in the nucleus. The variety of neutrons is equal to the difference between the mass number of the atom (M) and the atomic number (Z).

Examples: Let"s determine the variety of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the adhering to isotopes.

12C 13C 14C 14N

The various isotopes of an facet are identified by composing the mass number of the atom in the upper left corner of the symbol because that the element. 12C, 13C, and also 14C are isotopes the carbon (Z = 6) and also therefore contain six protons. If the atoms room neutral, they additionally must contain six electrons. The just difference in between these isotopes is the variety of neutrons in the nucleus.

12C: 6 electrons, 6 protons, and also 6 neutrons

13C: 6 electrons, 6 protons, and 7 neutrons

14C: 6 electrons, 6 protons, and also 8 neutrons

Practice trouble 1:

Calculate the variety of electrons in the Cl- and Fe3+ ions.

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Electromagnetic Radiation

Much that what is known around the structure of the electron in one atom has been derived by studying the interaction in between matter and also different creates of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation has actually some of the properties of both a particle and a wave.

Particles have a definite mass and they occupy space. Waves have actually no mass and yet they lug energy together they travel with space. In addition to their ability to carry energy, tide have four other characteristic properties: speed, frequency, wavelength, and also amplitude. The frequency (v) is the variety of waves (or cycles) every unit that time. The frequency of a wave is reported in devices of cycles per 2nd (s-1) or hertz (Hz).

The idealized illustration of a wave in the figure below illustrates the meanings of amplitude and also wavelength. The wavelength (l) is the smallest distance in between repeating point out on the wave. The amplitude of the wave is the distance in between the highest (or lowest) allude on the wave and also the facility of gravity of the wave.


If us measure the frequency (v) the a wave in cycles per second and the wavelength (l) in meters, the product of these 2 numbers has the systems of meters per second. The product the the frequency (v) times the wavelength (l) that a tide is as such the speed (s) in ~ which the wave travels v space.

vl = s

Practice difficulty 2:

What is the speed of a wave that has actually a wavelength of 1 meter and also a frequency of 60 cycles per second?

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Practice difficulty 3:

Orchestras in the United says tune their instruments to one "A" that has actually a frequency the 440 cycles per second, or 440 Hz. If the speed of sound is 1116 feet per second, what is the wavelength that this note?

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Light and also Other creates of Electromagnetic Radiation

Light is a wave with both electric and magnetic components. That is therefore a form of electromagnetic radiation.

Visible light consists of the small band of frequencies and also wavelengths in the part of the electro-magnetic spectrum the our eyes have the right to detect. It consists of radiation v wavelengths between about 400 nm (violet) and 700 nm (red). Due to the fact that it is a wave, irradiate is bent once it enters a glass prism. As soon as white light is concentrated on a prism, the light rays of different wavelengths room bent through differing amounts and the light is transformed into a spectrum the colors. Starting from the next of the spectrum whereby the light is bend by the the smallest angle, the colors room red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and also violet.

As we can see from the adhering to diagram, the energy lugged by light boosts as us go indigenous red to blue across the visible spectrum.


Because the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation can be as lengthy as 40 m or as brief as 10-5 nm, the clearly shows spectrum is only a small section of the total selection of electromagnetic radiation.


The electromagnetic spectrum contains radio and also TV waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, g-rays, and also cosmic rays, as shown in the number above. These different forms the radiation all travel at the speed of irradiate (c). Lock differ, however, in your frequencies and also wavelengths. The product of the frequency times the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is always equal come the speed of light.

vl = c

As a result, electromagnetic radiation that has a lengthy wavelength has a short frequency, and also radiation with a high frequency has a quick wavelength.

Practice trouble 4:

Calculate the frequency the red light that has a wavelength that 700.0 nm if the rate of light is 2.998 x 108 m/s.