This is a page for translate in information around various progressed techniques because that cape flight. For the most component they are not essential for vanilla speedruns, but can be advantageous for part hacks or TASing. This page is at this time UNDER CONSTRUCTION.

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1 speed Management1.1 Maximizing Speed1.2 controlling Low Speeds1.2.3 paris in Place/Backwards2 catching Air2.1 Aircatch Timing2.2 large Air3 maintaining Flight3.2 Pipe/Door Fly4 Cape spin Techniques4.2 Throwing organized Items4.3 speed Manipulation5 Yoshifly5.1 starting a Yoshifly5.3 catching Air6 various Techniques6.1 short Takeoff6.2 sticky Fly6.3 Clipping
Speed Management

While Mario is accelerating forward typically (walking, running, swimming, etc.) his speed frequently increases by 1.5 subpixels/frame (hereafter "units") each frame (with the remainder conserved as "subspeed" for calculating future speeds). ~ above the other hand, if Mario is cape flying, his speed boosts by 4 units/frame. Mario"s cape speed is capped at 48, bring about a speed oscillation sample which repeats together 48, 47, 51, 50, 49 while speed is capped and also forward is held. Once forward is released, speed is conserved as lengthy as Mario remains airborne (effectively indefinitely).

Maximizing Speed

If her goal is just to with the highest feasible speed, climate this video explains the basics the recognizing trip speeds in between 51 and 47.

Video: exactly how to Optimize Mario"s trip Speed Source: IsoFrieze

The values in this video can be helpful for recognizing other speeds. For instance, in ~ 1 speed, the camera move forward every 16 frames, the exact same as the jerking forward at 49 speed, while 3 speed coincides to camera activities with the same frequency as the jerking in ~ 51 speed. For speeds not close to a many of 16, much more experience city hall the camera scroll carefully is necessary; for instance, 8, 24, and 40 speed all feel "smoother" than adjacent speeds while still less smooth than 16, 32, or 48, because of the fact that the camera jerks every other framework (frequent enough that it does no feel "jerky" in the same means that e.g. 49 rate does). With enough practice and also some knowledge an progressed player can determine their exact speed in possibly as few as 16 frames, though very couple of people are capable of act so conveniently for the entire variety of relevant speeds native -13 to 51.

Being maybe to acknowledge speeds (or at least 51 speed) is a an essential skill for height level speedruns. When you are professional at it, there space some more advanced techniques which can help you to with 51 speed an ext quickly.

Optimal Tapping

If girlfriend have determined your present speed, the number of frames you need to host right can be determined easily as speed - 46 (so long as your speed is between 47 and also 50). Holding forward because that an extra 5 frames (which walk not change the final speed) deserve to be helpful as well.

speed Tap Forward
47 1 (or 6)
48 2 (or 7)
49 3 (or 8)
50 4 (or 9)

One special instance is 1-frame tapping. Tapping forward for a solitary frame have the right to be excellent by flicking the d-pad very quickly, and also with practice deserve to be done relatively consistently. This permits correcting 47 rate immediately, but is not helpful for speeds between 48 and also 50.

4-Frame Tapping

A simpler alternative to optimal tapping. If girlfriend have identified that Mario"s current speed is not 51, you can guarantee increasing speed through tapping forward for specifically 4 frames. This will have the as whole effect of raising speed by 1 unit, therefore e.g. 47 will end up being 48. Mastering this is substantially easier than mastering optimal tapping since the variety of frames to push right is the very same every time.

By the exact same principle, if girlfriend have established that Mario"s speed is in between 47 and also 49, a 3 framework forward tap will always increase your speed by 2 units. Beware though, act this in ~ 50 rate will instead collection you to 47. A 5 frame tap will not change Mario"s final speed. Thus, a 4 structure tap is actually an ext lenient 보다 one might expect; overshooting by a structure is always fine, and also undershooting through a structure is well as lengthy as girlfriend are below 50 speed.

Initial speed Optimization

Until Mario beginning cape flight state, his rate oscillation sample is *generally* the of p-speed running, namely 48, 47, 49, 48, 47. This will not it is in the situation in part scenarios e.g. As soon as Mario beginning flight before reaching capped p-speed or (by utilizing the takeoff meter) without complete p-meter, but in a bulk of instances it walk apply.

This oscillation pattern deserve to be exploited to boost your possibility of getting an early 51 speed. Since your speed the structure you go into cape trip is always between 47 and also 49, the number of frames of cape flight before you with 51 speed the an initial time is always between 1 and also 3. There is a 40% possibility for 1 or 2 frames and also a 20% opportunity for 3 frames assuming your p-speed oscillation is random. Releasing ideal after 4 or 5 frames that cape flight will never provide 51 speed. (Of course, friend can additionally hold forward for an extra 5 frames, and the eventual an outcome is the same, which might or might not be much easier to time.)

To make use of this technique, you need to have actually a feeling of precisely when Mario will go into cape flight. This is not as an overwhelming as it could sound. Suspect you simply press and also hold B for the early stage takeoff, he cape descent framerule provides a big amount of leeway for once to relax B to avoid ascending and begin cape trip on the very same frame. Because that an experienced runner, getting the exactly cape descent framerule because that an early stage takeoff is currently a valuable skill and one the most civilization learn without also trying to.

With this knowledge, one have the right to take several approaches. If you always release forward after 3 frames, your initial trip speed will be in between 49 and also 51, better than random (though there is only a 20% opportunity of 51). If her goal is simply to maximize the opportunity of obtaining initial 51 rate (e.g. Because that an IL speedrun), then releasing right after 1 or 2 frames gives a 40% opportunity each of acquiring initial 51 speed. Releasing after ~ 2 frames is often especially good, because if friend don"t get initial 51 speed, you get 50 rate (40% chance), with just a 20% possibility of acquiring 47. One of two people of this 2 techniques offers an median initial rate of 49.8, significantly higher than what girlfriend would intend from a uniformly arbitrarily initial speed (49) that you would acquire if you did not do anything to try to optimize initial speed.

Also, keep in mind that the cape descent framerule and p-speed oscillation have tendency to help, quite than hurt, your ability to control Mario"s initial rate in a regulated environment like the beginning of a level. In plenty of cases, acquiring the early stage 51 speed does not require a continual initial B press frame; there is usually a 2-3 frame window for the early stage B press where the correct frame to relax forward after entering cape trip does not change. Together a result, if one could think that getting consistent initial 51 speed is dual frame perfect, in most cases it actually only requires one frame-perfect input, the one to relax forward, i beg your pardon is loved one to the time since the start of the level and also so deserve to be timed using visual or music cues. This is obviously the fastest option, however can just be provided reliably in levels where you can fully control Mario"s movement from the beginning of the level, together as basic flyover levels choose Vanilla mystery 2.

Managing short Speeds

In speedruns the is rarely helpful to walk at short speeds (the most usual application being to recoup from significant mistakes), however in complicated cape hacks it is a crucial skill.

Losing speed Quickly

Often, one wants to walk from having actually a high flight speed to a short one quickly. The easiest way to perform so is through tapping B if holding behind on the d-pad to alleviate speed by 6 systems per B press. The B button can it is in pressed any variety of times, and so lengthy as Mario is no travelling with a backward rate of more than 7 units. That is advantageous to arrangement exactly how plenty of B taps will certainly be done rather than just guessing. If Mario is at first travelling at 51 speed, mashing B 8 times in quick succession will an outcome in 3 speed. V that said, if girlfriend only understand that Mario"s speed is in the oscillation variety (that is, in between 47 and 51), 8 B taps will sometimes cause 0 or -1 speed if the initial speed was 47 or 48. Instead, many players will prefer in some scenarios to perform 7 B taps to acquire a rate in the range of 5-9, and also then an ext carefully readjust their speed from there with B taps and also forward taps.

With this technique, the speed that one deserve to mash the B button directly determines how easily Mario"s speed can be eliminated. For this reason, it is important to choose a controller grip which enables B to be mashed when holding X or Y. Clawing the X button with your index finger is a great idea, in ~ which suggest the B button can be mashed through the thumb. If possible, it is difficult to readjust the appropriate hand controller tight in the middle of flight, so constantly clawing X while flying is advisable.

An alternative an approach of making use of cape spins to minimize speed is described listed below in the cape turn section, however for several factors B tapping tends to be the better option in normal cases.

Speed mod 2 and also Mod 4

One that the most dreaded instances during cape trip is acquiring 0 speed without expecting it. 0 rate takes a far-ranging amount that time to differentiate from 1/-1 rate (up to 16 frames add to reaction time), and also at specifically 0, attempting to catch air will usually lead to Mario stalling, which deserve to be challenging to recuperate from. In plenty of cases, 1 speed is the most desirable speed, while 0 is deadly. V a little of effort and understanding, one have the right to preempt this. This can also be supplied in niche cases where precise speeds room desirable, and also understanding that will aid in determining specific speeds an ext quickly.

Note that, so long as Mario"s rate is not capped (over 47), B is not used, and also Mario doesn"t collide with any type of walls or opponents which readjust speed, his speed deserve to only adjust by a many of 4 units. Hence, offered a details known speed, the only last speeds after any variety of frames in which none of the exceptions over are discussed are those that are the same mod 4. This is true regardless of turn-arounds and also d-pad inputs. For instance, with an initial rate of 1 unit rightward, the is feasible for Mario to change speed to 9 systems rightward or 3 systems leftward, however never to any type of even rate or come e.g. 7 units rightward. This way that to stop 0 speed, every one needs to execute is make sure to have a rate which is 1, 2, or 3 mod 4 however not 0 mod 4.

In practice though, generally some lot of B-tapping is likewise needed while paris at low speed (at least exterior of yoshi fly). Every B tap to reduce Mario"s speed by 6, so long as the is not more than 7 devices backwards on the structure B is pressed. Due to the fact that 6 is 2 mod 4, this method that after ~ some variety of (uncapped) B taps, the rate will no much longer be constant mod 4, yet will be regular mod 2. In particular, if Mario initially has an strange speed, his speed will remain odd, and also hence will never hit exactly 0.

This might make the seem prefer B-tapping is slightly detrimental, however in fact with care it have the right to be offered to manipulate speed mod 2 and mod 4. If Mario is at the backward rate cap (8 systems or more), instead of reducing speed by 6 units, Mario"s front speed boosts by 1 unit. One can transition from an also speed to an odd one utilizing this fact. The variety of B taps needed to change the same of Mario"s speed is noted in this table (were an adverse denotes a speed opposite the direction of motion):

speed B taps come flip rate parity
-8 or lower 1
-7 come -2 2
-1 come 4 3
5 come 10 4

In particular, if your goal is to go from an also speed to an strange one, as soon as Mario get a an adverse (not 0) speed, it constantly requires specifically 2 B taps to readjust the speed parity.

If you desire to control Mario"s speed mod 4 fairly than just mod 2, the exact same table originally applies, yet after the correct variety of B taps is done, additional B taps will rise speed mode 4 by 1 till the speed reaches -7, in ~ which point it will certainly drop come -13 again. Understanding this one can work out the number of B taps forced to obtain the desired speed mod 4.

While this might seem like a lot of work to prevent 0 speed, the vital here is that whatever here only has to be excellent once, after i m sorry Mario have the right to fly and adjust speeds because that an indefinite amount that time with better knowledge and without risk of 0 speed unless and until one of the conditions above is violated (at which allude it will must be manipulated again).

If Mario starts a room indigenous a stationary position midair (such together a vertical pipe exit), he will invest 1 frame before entering trip (if there is takeoff meter remaining). Based upon this, the player can immediately manipulate one of two people an odd rate by holding front or an even one by holding neutral as the room begins. Holding forward for just 1 structure will give 1 speed, and also each subsequent structure adds 4 rate (of course until 49 is reached). Be mindful that romhacks with modifications to provide Mario flight instantly (rather than with pipe/doorfly) may not respect this though.

Flying in Place/Backwards

It is feasible for Mario to move backwards relative to the direction he is facing. This an approach is helpful in conjunction v cape-spins to revolve around, since one deserve to react to whichever direction Mario faces. In some situations it might be supplied to get rid of the must turn at all. This is also useful for precise movement, enabling one to very closely position Mario in a details spot while flying.

The simple rule of thumb is the Mario must constantly be travel forward v at the very least 1 rate while catching air. However, if instantly after capturing air, one holds backwards and also presses B quickly, Mario"s speed will go an adverse within a couple of B presses, lowering through 6 units each press. If done well, Mario will relocate backwards slightly while rising during the aircatch. Then, in ~ the wanted height, forward must be pressed an extremely briefly to get earlier to a hopeful speed. Each structure forward is hosted increases Mario"s speed by 4. Mario"s capped backward speed arrays from -7 to -13, so in the ideal case only 2 frames that forward room needed, if in the worst instance 4 frames room required. Once Mario"s speed is back to positive, quickly transition on the d-pad back to behind to start another cape pump, and also repeat. If it is not necessary to take trip backward, just in place, climate it may be much better to press B a controlled variety of times rather than mashing, do the essential forward taps more consistent.

2 B-tap Method

By far the biggest risk through backward paris is hitting exactly 0 speed. This technique allows friend to store your speed constantly odd, but has the disadvantage of no achieving optimal behind speeds. If you start at any kind of positive speed, you can constantly do two B-taps safely, and also your speed will remain odd. So long as your initial speed was less than 12, girlfriend will end up v some an unfavorable speed in between -11 and also -1. Unfortunately, this cannot reach the optimal -13 speed. If you tap forward also long, you may get much more speed 보다 you would want. If you finish up through at the very least 5 speed, you have the right to safely execute 3 B-taps and also maintain odd speed parity. The main worry here is the it will prove complicated to avoid moving forward too much; your forward taps must be done precisely or rather you will obtain too lot speed.

4 framework Forward push Method

The greatest possible an adverse speed because that Mario is -13. That means that if girlfriend tap forward because that 4 (or more) frames, girlfriend will always end up v a positive speed. The speed might be together high as 9 if your an adverse speed is in ~ -7, but it is perfectly feasible to paris backwards if girlfriend hit 9 rate (or even potentially greater if girlfriend mash B conveniently enough). V this method, the is then for sure to do any variety of B taps after recording air. However, you have to do at the very least 4. Through 4 B-taps, any type of speed up to +17 will end up in the selection between -7 and also -13. With only 3, the greatest such speed is +11, which girlfriend can easily accidentally go above simply by pushing forward a frame too long. Much more B-taps won"t often tend to boost your final an unfavorable speed, however they execute make it safer if you do much longer forward presses. In principle, as numerous as 10 B-taps deserve to help, however only if you pressed forward far longer 보다 needed.

Negative rate Flowcharts

Backwards paris is difficult to carry out consistently without accidentally missing an aircatch. The above methods are workable, but really inefficient if your goal is in reality to relocate backwards an appreciable distance. One technique to mitigate this is to use a rate flowchart. If you know your present speed, you can determine the variety of B-taps to reach a wanted speed. -11 rate is a great choice for a desired an adverse speed because with perfect 3-frame front tap you will finish up in ~ 1 speed. If you overtap contempt you will end up in ~ 5, 9, 13, etc, which deserve to be distinguished easily from 1.

To begin with, you will have to reach the preferred speed. One point to note is that, when Mario"s negative speed is capped, the is easy to differentiate when Mario has actually -13 speed, due to the fact that on this particular B-tap Mario will noticeably advice backwards, while various other B-taps just slightly reduce Mario"s negative speed. Native -13 speed, it requires 2 B-taps to reach -11. This allows one to get to the wanted -11 speed, after i m sorry the flowchart have the right to be followed.

Alternatively, if you know Mario"s exact (positive) speed, you have the right to determine how numerous B-presses are required easily. This flowchart mirrors the variety of B-presses required both for hopeful speeds which can be got to from -11 rate (in the center) and others the cannot (to the right).

A an extremely similar technique can be used for -13 speed, though it tends to it is in slightly much less convenient.


There is nothing stopping one from utilizing other an adverse speeds, however these two are probably the most useful. -12 and -8 rate are potentially quite negative because of the risk of hitting precisely 0 speed. -10 walk not lug this risk, but does placed you top top an also speed, which is generally still a negative idea. -9 and also -7 are both workable, but because these are not as fast as -11 or -13, spanning distance through these speeds will take longer. A specifically committed player could incorporate multiple flowcharts, switching between target an adverse speeds together the case calls.

A different approach, still flowchart-based yet requiring less specific determination of speed, is displayed in the adhering to chart. The chart reflects the minimum variety of B-taps to get to one of the four target speed (or two once the speed is 5 mod 6). This tho assumes you have odd speed and also seek to save it odd.


The lesson here is that, if the player has speed in between +1 and also +5, 2 B-taps will certainly work. In between 5 and also 11, 3 B-taps will. Between 11 and 17, 4 will, and also so on. The player for this reason needs to be able to distinguish speed +3 and also below indigenous +7 and also above, and also so on.

Catching Air

An aircatch (also recognized as a cape pump) is once Mario tilts backwards and begins ascending when in cape flight. Aircatches are usually triggered through pressing and also briefly holding backward on the d-pad if flying.

Note: while there are many differences in between NTSC and PAL physics, capturing air is one an extremely obvious difference. As with everything on this page (and most of this wiki) this web page deals only with the NTSC versions.

Aircatch Timing

To record air, Mario have to be in flight phase that at least 3 for much more than 1 frame, and also then start pressing behind on the d-pad. The trip phase is shown by the angle of Mario"s cape computer animation while flying. Many commonly, as soon as Mario "bobbles" or pulls ago without catching air, the was just in flight phase 2 when back was pressed. Occasionally though, when ago is pressed on the an initial frame of phase 3, Mario"s animation will visually change for a structure to the step 3 animation, however will not successfully capture air. In this case, ago needed to be pressed (at least) 1 structure later.

Watching Mario"s animation thus gives a great indicator of how optimally one is recording air. Ideally phase 3 must be visible for as brief as possible (but not a single frame).

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Ceiling Hits

Often one wants to remain close come a ceiling while flying, and also accomplishes this by rapidly capturing air and then hitting the ceiling. One instance in speedruns is in Roy"s Castle. In this case, that is possible to capture air much more often than normal because of hitting the ceiling. In this case, the cape sound impact provides a valuable tool because that determining precisely how lengthy it took from beginning the aircatch to hitting the ceiling (which in turn informs top top how far Mario dropped prior to the aircatch, etc.) Normally, the cape sound effect does a quick glissando the a full octave up and back down. However, if the ceiling is hit, this sound effect will be cancelled ~ ascending only part of the octave. Based upon the family member pitch that the starting sound and also the sound as it is cancelled by the ceiling, one can determine exactly how plenty of frames the aircatch lasted.

This is useful for hitting very specific windows without an excellent visual cues, for example this strategy in Roy"s castle: