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Epipelagic Zone

This surface ar layer is additionally called the sunlight zone and also extends from the surface to 200 meter (660 feet). It is in this zone that many of the visible light exists. With the light comes heating from sun. This heating is responsible for vast change in temperature that occurs in this zone, both in the latitude and each season.

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The sea surface ar temperatures range from as high as 97°F (36°C) in the Persian Gulf to 28°F (-2°C) close to the phibìc Pole.

Interaction with the wind keeps this class mixed and thus enables the heater from the sunlight to be dispersed vertically. At the basic of this mix layer is the beginning of the thermocline.

The thermocline is a an ar where water temperature decreases promptly with boosting depth and transition layer in between the combined layer at the surface and also deeper water.


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Typical seawater temperature profile with raising depth.

The depth and also strength the the thermocline different from season to season and year come year. The is the strongest in the tropics and decrease to non-existent in the polar winter season.

Mesopelagic Zone

Below the epipelagic ar is the mesopelagic zone, prolonging from 200 meter (660 feet) come 1,000 meter (3,300 feet). The mesopelagic ar is periodically referred to together the twilight zone or the midwater region as sunshine this deep is really faint. Temperature transforms the greatest in this zone as this is the zone with includes the thermocline.

Because the the absence of light, it is within this zone that bioluminescence starts to show up on life. The eyes on the fishes room larger and generally increase directed, most most likely to watch silhouettes the other animals (for food) versus the dim light.

Bathypelagic Zone

The depths from 1,000-4,000 meter (3,300 - 13,100 feet) consist of the bathypelagic zone. Due to its continuous darkness, this region is additionally called the midnight zone. The only light at this depth (and lower) originates from the bioluminescence that the animals themselves.

The temperature in the bathypelagic zone, unlike the of the mesopelagic zone, is constant. The temperature never fluctuates much from a chilling 39°F (4°C). The push in the bathypelagic region is extreme and also at depth of 13,100 feet (4,000 meters), reaches over 5850 pounds per square inch! Yet, sperm whales can dive down to this level searching for food.

Abyssopelagic Zone

The Abyssopelagic region (or abyssal zone) extends indigenous 13,100 feet (4,000 meters) to 19,700 feet (6,000 meters). The is the pitch-black bottom layer of the ocean.

The name (abyss) originates from a Greek word definition "no bottom" because they assumed the ocean was bottomless. Three-quarters that the area that the deep-ocean floor lies in this zone.

The water temperature is constantly close to freezing and also only a few creatures have the right to be uncovered at this crushing depths.

Hadalpelagic Zone

The deepest zone that the ocean, the hadalpelagic zone extends indigenous 19,700 feet (6,000 meters) come the really bottom in ~ 36,070 feet (10,994 meters) in the Mariana Trench turn off the coastline of Japan.

The temperature is constant at just above freezing. The load of every the water end head in the Mariana Trench is end 8 tons per square inch.

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Even in ~ the really bottom life exists. In 2005, tiny single-celled organisms, called foraminifera, a type of plankton, were discovered in the Challenger Deep trench southwest of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. The deepest a fish have ever been found, Abyssobrotula galatheae, remained in the Puerto Rico Trench at 8,372 meter (27,460 feet).