The absolute value of a number is its street from zero. For any kind of x, |x| is identified as follows: | x |= x, if x > 0, and | x |= −x, if x

Acute Angle An angle whose measure up is higher than 0 degrees and less than 90 degrees.

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Example of an acute angle

Acute Triangle A triangle in i m sorry all three angles space acute angles.

Addition residential or commercial property of Equality If a= b, then a + c= b + c.

Additive Inverse For any kind of number x, over there exists a number −x, such that x + −x= 0.

Adjacent Angle 2 angles the share a common vertex and a usual side.

Altitude that a Triangle A segment drawn from a crest of the triangle perpendicular come the opposite side of the triangle, dubbed the base, (or perpendicular to an extension of the base).

AD is an altitude the the triangle

Angle An angle is formed when 2 rays re-publishing a usual vertex.

Area The surface ar area that a two-dimensional figure.

Area Model A mathematics model based on the area of a rectangle, supplied to represent multiplication or to stand for fractional components of a whole.

Arithmetic Sequence A succession a1, a2, a3, a4,... Is an arithmetic sequence if there is a number c such the for every n, one + 1= an + c, that is an + 1 – one = c.

Associative residential property of Addition For any type of numbers x, y , and z: (x + y) + z= x + (y + z).

Attribute A distinguishing characteristic of an item such as angles or political parties of a triangle.

Average See: Mean.

Axis A number heat in a plane. Plural form is axes. Also see: coordinate Plane.

Bar Graph A graph in which rectangular bars, one of two people vertical or horizontal, are used to display data.

Example that a bar graph


If any type of number x is raised to the nth power, created as x^n, x is referred to as the basic of the expression; any side that a triangle; either of the parallel political parties of a trapezoid; one of two people of the parallel political parties of a parallelogram.

Box and also Whisker Plot because that data ordered the smallest to largest the median, reduced quartile and also upper quartile room found and displayed in a box follow me a number line. Whiskers are added to the right and left and also extended come the least and also greatest worths of the data.

Example that a box and whisker plot

Cartesian coordinate System See: coordinate Plane.

Center the a Circle A suggest in the inner of the circle the is equidistant from every points of the circle.

A circle and also its center

Chord A segment whose endpoints room points top top a circle.

PQ is a chord that the circle

Circle The set of points in a aircraft equidistant indigenous a allude in the plane.

Circle Graph See: Pie graph.

Circumference The distance roughly a circle. Its size is the product that the diameter the the circle and pi.

Coefficient In the product the a continuous and a change the constant is the number coefficient of the variable and also is frequently referred to just as the coefficient.

Combining like Terms nk + nm= n(k + m). Also commonly referred to as factoring.

Common Denominator A common multiple that the platform of 2 or an ext fractions. Additionally see: Least typical Denominator

Common Factor A aspect that 2 or much more integers have in common. Likewise see: Greatest usual Factor.

Common Multiple See: Least usual Multiple.

Commutative building of Addition For any numbers x and y: x + y = y + x.

Commutative home of Multiplication For any numbers a and b: ab= ba.

Complement The match of a collection is a collection of all the aspects of the universal set that space not in the offered set.

Complementary Angles 2 angles are complementary if the sum of their measures totals 90º.

Complementary angles, a and b

Composite Number A element number is an integer p greater than 1 with exactly two confident factors: 1 and also p. A composite number is one integer greater than 1 the has much more than two hopeful factors. The number 1 is no a prime no one a composite number.

Compound Interest Interest included to the primary of an account, so the the included interest likewise earns attention going forward.

Compound Event See: Event.

Cone A three-dimensional figure with a circular base joined to a suggest called the apex.

Example of a cone

Congruent supplied to refer to angles or sides having actually the very same measure and also to polygons that have the same shape and also size.

Conjecture An presumption that is believed to it is in true based on observations.

Constant A addressed value.

Constant the Proportionality If a duty has a rule in the type y= Kx, climate for any type of input x≠0, the quotient the y/x will constantly have the worth K. The number K is called continuous of proportionality.

Constant price Of Change y= mx + b, right here m is the constant rate the change.

Constant price Of Proportionality one more term for range factor.

Coordinate(s) A number assigned to each allude on the number heat which mirrors its place or location on the line. In a coordinate plane that ordered pair, (x,y), assigned to each suggest of the aircraft showing its position in relation to the x-axis and also y-axis.

Coordinate Plane A airplane that consists of a horizontal and vertical number line, intersecting at ideal angles at your origins. The number lines, dubbed axes, divide the airplane into four quadrants. The quadrants space numbered I, II, III, and IV beginning in the upper ideal quadrant and also moving counterclockwise.

Coordinate Plane

Corresponding Angles

If two lines are cut by a transversal the angles on the same side of the transversal and on the exact same side the the 2 lines are equivalent angles. If the lines are parallel the pairs of angle will have equal measure. If two polygons are comparable the angles that room in the very same relative position in the figures are equivalent angles and also have equal measures.

Corresponding Sides If 2 polygons are comparable the sides of the polygon in the same family member positions are matching sides and the ratio of the lengths of every pair is the same.

Counterclockwise A circular movement opposite to the direction the the movement of the hands of a clock.

Counterclockwise direction

Counting Numbers The count numbers space the numbers in the adhering to never-ending sequence: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7... Us can likewise write this together +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7,... This numbers are likewise called the hopeful integers or natural numbers.

Coupon A percent discount or a resolved amount of money taken off the sale price of one item.


A three-dimensional shape having actually six congruent square faces. The third power the a number.


A three-dimensional figure with parallel circular bases the equal size joined by a lateral surface whose network is a rectangle.


Data A arsenal of information, commonly in the form of numbers. Each individual piece of info is dubbed a data point.

Data Analysis The procedure of making feeling of built up data.

Data Point See: Data.


The circumference of a circle is divided into 360 equal parts or arcs. Radii attracted to both end of the arc form an edge of 1 degree. The level of a hatchet is the amount of the exponents of the variables. The level of a polynomial is the highest degree of any kind of of the terms.

Denominator The denominator the a fraction indicates into how countless equal parts the entirety is divided. The denominator shows up beneath the portion bar.

Dependent Variable The output worths for a function.

Diameter A segment through endpoints top top the circle that passes with its center.

Distributive Property n(k + m)= nk + nm.

Distance For any type of two numbers x and y, the distance between x and also y is the absolute worth of your difference; that is, Distance= |x – y|.

Dividend The amount that is to be divided.

Divisibility expect that n and also d room integers, and also that d is no 0. The number n is divisible through d if over there is an integer q such the n= dq. Equivalently, d is a variable of n or n is a multiple of d.

Division Algorithm offered two positive integers a and also b, us can always find distinct integers q and also r such that a= bq + r and also 0≤ r The quantity whereby the dividend is divided.

Domain The set of input worths in a function.

Edge A segment the joins continually vertices the a polygon or a polyhedron.

Elements Members that a set.

Empirical Probability Probability established by actual data built up from genuine experiments.

Empty set also called a Null Set. A collection that has actually no elements.

Equation A mathematics sentence using the equal authorize to state that 2 expressions represent the same number.

Equilateral Triangle An equilateral triangle is a triangle with 3 congruent sides. An it is intended triangle also has three congruent angles, which we can also call equiangular triangle.


A term used to explain equations or inequalities that have the exact same solution. A term offered to explain fractions or ratios that are equal. A term provided to explain fractions, decimals, and percents that are equal.

Event an occasion is any kind of subset that the sample space. A basic event is a subset that the sample space containing just one possible outcome of one experiment. A compound occasion is a subset that the sample an are containing 2 or an ext outcomes.

Experiment A repeatable action with a collection of outcomes.

Experimental Probability See: Empirical Probability.

Expressions mathematics phrases provided to explain quantities.

Exponent expect that n is a entirety number. Then, for any type of number x, the nth strength of x, or x to the nth power, is the product of n factors of the number x. This number is generally written x^n. The number x is usually dubbed the base of the expression x^n, and also n is called the exponent.

Exponential Notation A notation that expresses a number in regards to a base and also an exponent.

Face every of the surface polygons that kind a polyhedron.

Factor an integer the divides evenly into a dividend. Usage interchangeably through divisor except in the division Algorithm.

Factorial The factorial the a non-negative number n is created n! and is the product that all optimistic integers less than or same to n. By definition 0!= 1!= 1.

Fraction numbers of the type m/n, whereby n is no zero.

Frequency The variety of times a data allude appears in a data set.

Function A duty is a preeminence which assigns to each member of a set of inputs, referred to as the domain, a member that a collection of outputs, referred to as the range.

Graph the a Function The photographic representation that a function.

Greater than, less Than suppose that x and also y room integers. Us say the x is much less than y, x y, if x is come the best of y ~ above the number line.

Greatest usual Factor, GCF suppose m and n are hopeful integers. An essence d is a common factor the m and also n if d is a aspect of both m and also n. The greatest usual factor, or GCF, that m and n is the best positive integer the is a variable of both m and also n. We compose the GCF that m and n together GCF (m,n).

Height The length of the perpendicular in between the bases the a parallelogram or trapezoid; likewise the altitude of a triangle.

Horizontal Axis See: coordinate Plane.

Hypotenuse The next opposite the right angle in a ideal triangle.

Hypotenuse of a ideal triangle

Improper Fraction A fraction in i m sorry the molecule is greater than or equal to the denominator.

Independent Events If the outcome of the very first event go not affect the outcome of the second event.

Independent Variable The input worths for a function.

Inequality A statement the one expression is less than or better than another.

Input Values The worths of the domain that a function.

Integers The collection of integers is created of the count numbers, your negatives, and also zero; ... −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4...

Intersection the Sets A collection whose aspects are every the elements that the offered sets have actually in common, written A ∩ B.

Irregular Polygon A polygon the is no a regular polygon.

Isosceles Triangle A triangle through at least two sides of equal length is referred to as an isosceles triangle.

Isosceles Triangle

Lateral Area The surface area of any type of three-dimensional figure excluding the area of any type of surface designated together a basic of the figure.

Lattice Point A allude of the name: coordinates plane, (x,y), in which both x and also y are integers.

Law Of big Numbers as the variety of trials in an experiment are increased, the typical of the speculative probability viewpoints the theoretical probability.

Least typical Denominator The least usual denominator of the fountain p/n and also k/m is LCM(n, m).

Least typical Multiple, LCM The integers a and b are positive. An integer m is a usual multiple of a and b if m is a many of both a and also b. The least typical multiple, or LCM, of a and also b is the the smallest integer that is a typical multiple the a and b. We create the LCM that a and also b together LCM (a,b).


The 2 sides the a ideal triangle that kind the ideal angle. The same sides of one isosceles triangle or the non-parallel political parties of a trapezoid.
Legs that a ideal triangle

Less Than See: greater Than.

Line Graph A graph offered to screen data that occurs in a sequence. Consecutive clues are connected by segments.

Example the a heat graph
Example the a heat plot

Linear design for Multiplication Skip counting on a number line.

Magnitude The absolute value of a number; its street from zero.

Mean The median of a set of data; sum of the data divided by the number of items. Likewise called the arithmetic average or average.

Measures of main Tendency typically measured by the mean, median, or setting of the data set

Median The center value that a set of data i ordered it in increasing or decreasing order. If the set has an even variety of items the typical is the median of the middle two items.

Missing factor Model A design for division in i m sorry the quotient of an indicated department is viewed as a lacking factor of a related multiplication.

Mixed Numbers The sum of one integer and also a ideal fraction.

Mode The worth of the aspect that shows up most frequently in a data set.

Multiplicative Inverse The number x is dubbed the multiplicative train station or reciprocal of the confident integer n if x · n= 1.

Multiplicity The number of times a factor shows up in a factorization.

Natural Numbers See: count Numbers.

Net Yardage Total variety of yards acquired or lost at the end of a series of theatre in a sporting activities game.

Negative Integers Integers less than zero.

Nets One method to see the surface area of a 3 dimensional number by cutting follow me its edges to create a two-dimensional figure.

Notation A technical device of symbols offered to convey mathematics information.

Number line Model A photographic representation of number on a straight line.

Null Set See: empty Set.

Numerator The expression written above the portion bar in a common fraction to suggest the variety of parts counted.

Obtuse Angle An angle whose measure up is higher than 90 degrees and less 보다 180 degrees.

Obtuse Triangle A triangle that has actually one obtuse angle.

Opposite Angle The angle the is opposite come a provided side that a airplane figure.

Order of Operations The order of mathematical operations, v computations within parentheses to be done first, and addition and individually from left to appropriate done last.

Ordered Pair A pair of number that represent the collaborates of a suggest in the coordinate aircraft with the very first number measured along the horizontal scale and the second along the upright scale.

Origin The allude with name: coordinates 0 top top a number line; the suggest with collaborates (0,0) in the coordinate plane.

Outcomes The set of possible results of one experiment.

Outlier A term introduce to a worth that is drastically different from many of the other data values.

Output Values The set of results derived by applying a function rule to a collection of entry values.

Parallel Lines 2 lines in a airplane that never ever intersect.

Percent A way of express a number as parts out the 100; the molecule of a proportion with a denominator of 100.

Perfect Cube An integer n that can be created in the kind n= k³, where k is an integer.

Perfect Square An integer n that have the right to be composed in the kind n= k², whereby k is an integer.

Perimeter The perimeter that a polygon is the sum of the lengths the its sides.

Perpendicular two lines or segments room perpendicular if they crossing to type a appropriate angle.

Pi The proportion of the circumference to the diameter of any type of circle, stood for either through the prize π, or the approximation 22/7 or 3.1415926...

Pie Graph A graph using sectors the a circle that are proportional to the percent the the data represented.

Positive Integers See: count Numbers.

Power See: Exponent.

Prime Number See: Composite Number.

Prime Factorization The process of detect the prime factors of one integer. The hatchet is also used to describe the an outcome of the process.

Prism A form of polyhedron that has actually two bases that are both congruent and also parallel, and also lateral encounters which space parallelograms.

Probability In an experiment in which every outcome is same likely, the probability P(A) of an occasion A is m/n whereby m is the number of outcomes in the subset A and n is the total number of outcomes in the sample space S.

Proof A thinking to aid establish a fact.

Proper Fraction A portion whose worth is higher than 0 and less than 1.

Proportion one equation the ratios in the type a/b = c/d, whereby b and d are not same to zero.

Protractor an instrument supplied to measure angles in degrees.

Pyramid A form of polyhedron that has one face, dubbed a base, and also triangular lateral faces that accomplish at a point called the apex.

Pythagorean Theorem The formula that claims that if a and b are the lengths the the foot of a right triangle and c is the size of the hypotenuse, climate a² + b² = c².

Quadrant See: coordinate Plane.

Quadrilateral A plane figure with 4 straight edges and four angles.

Quotient The an outcome obtained by law division. Watch the department Algorithm for a various use that quotient.

Radical Notation A mathematics symbol to represent the root of one expression, such as square roots.

Radius The distance from the facility of a circle a allude of the circle. Plural type is radii.

Range The difference in between the largest and also smallest worths of a data set. See function for another an interpretation of range.

Rate A price is a division comparison between two quantities with different units. Additionally see Unit Rate.

Ratio A department comparison that two amounts with or without the same units. If the systems are different they should be expressed to do the ratio meaningful.

Rational Number A number that can be composed as a/b where a is one integer and b is a organic number.

Ray part of a heat that has actually a starting point and also continues forever in only one direction.

Rebate Money the the client receives, typically from the manufacturer, after ~ making a purchase.

Reciprocal See: Multiplicative Inverse.

Rectangular Prism A hard 3D object that has actually six faces, each confront being a rectangle.

Reflection The revolution that move points or shapes by “flipping” them throughout a line or axis; a mirror image of the original set of points. If B is the have fun of A in heat L, then L is the perpendicular bisector of segment AB.

Regular Polygon A polygon v equal size sides and also equal angle measures.

Relatively Prime 2 integers m and also n are fairly prime if the GCF of m and also n is 1.

Remainder See: division Algorithm.

Repeating Decimal A decimal in which a cycle of one or more digits is repetitive infinitely.

Right Angle one angle developed by the intersection of perpendicular lines; an angle v a measure up of 90º.

Right Triangle A triangle that has actually a right angle.

Root The nodes in a tree chart to represent events.

Sale A palliation in the revenue price of an item.

Sample Space The collection of all possible outcomes of an experiment.

Scaffolding A method of department in i beg your pardon partial quotients room computed, stacked, and also then combined.

Scale Factor If polygon A and also B are comparable and s is a confident number so that for each side the A with size k there is a matching side the B with length sk, climate s is the scale variable of A to B.

Scalene Triangle A triangle v all three sides of different lengths is dubbed a scalene triangle.


A procedure by which a shape is lessened or expanded proportionally. Picking the unit of measure to be supplied on a number line.

Scientific Notation A mathematics shorthand come represent huge numbers.

Sector A an ar of a one bounded by two radii and also an arc of the circle i beg your pardon joins your endpoints.

Sequence A list of state ordered by the natural numbers. The outputs the a function whose domain is the organic numbers or entirety numbers.

Set A repertoire of objects or elements.

Set Model A representation of teams of objects.

Similar Polygons two polygons whose corresponding angles have actually equal measures and also whose matching side lengths type equal ratios.

Simple Event See: Event.

Simple Interest interest (money) the one earns through investing money in an account.

Simplest type of a Fraction A type in i m sorry the greatest typical factor of the numerator and also denominator is 1.

Simplifying The procedure of finding tantamount fractions to obtain the most basic form.

Skewed an uneven representation of a collection of data.

Slant Height an altitude of a challenge of a pyramid or a cone.

Solution The value of the variable that renders the equation true.

Square Root because that non-negative number x and also y, y= x , read “y is same to the square root of x,” means y² = x.

Standard Notation mathematical notation the is generally used.

Stem and also Leaf Plot A an approach of showing the frequency the a certain data by sorting and ordering the values.

Straight Angle an angle through a measure up of 180 degrees formed by the opposite rays.

Subset collection B is a subset of collection A if every facet of set B is also an element of collection A.

Subtraction building of Equality If a= b, then a – c= b – c.

Supplementary Angles 2 angles space supplementary if the amount of their actions totals 180º.

Surface Area The complete area of every the encounters of a polyhedron. The full of the lateral area and base area the a cone. The full of the lateral area and the two bases that a cylinder.


every member of a sequence. Every expression in a polynomial separated by enhancement and subtraction signs.

Terminating Decimal If a and also b are organic numbers v b ≠ 0 and a ÷ b yields a finite quotient, the decimal created is a terminating decimal.

Tessellation Tiling the a airplane with some shape.

Theoretical Probability Probability based upon mathematical regulation rather 보다 a repertoire of data.

Translation A revolution that moves a figure along a heat in a aircraft but go not transform its size or shape.

Transversal any line that intersects two or an ext lines at various points.

Trapezoid A 4 sided aircraft figure with specifically one set of parallel sides.

Tree Diagram

A process used to uncover the prime determinants on one integer. A method to theorem the sample an are of link events.

Triangle A airplane figure through three directly edges and three angles.

Triangle sum Theorem The sum of the actions of the interior angles of any type of triangle is 180 degrees.

Trichotomy A home stating that specifically one of these statements is true for each genuine number: that is positive, negative, or zero.

Unit Fractions fractions of the type 1/n

Union of two Sets A collection that contains all of the facets that appear in one of two people of the offered sets, written A ∪ B.

Unit Rate A ratio of two unlike quantities that has actually a denominator of 1 unit.

Universal Set A collection containing all of the aspects under consideration.

Variable A letter or symbol that represents one unknown quantity.

Venn Diagram A diagram entailing two or more overlapping circles that aids in organizing data.


The typical endpoint of 2 rays forming an angle. A suggest of a polygon or polyhedron whereby edges meet.

Vertical Angles If two straight lines crossing at a point, climate each heat is split into 2 rays. The angles formed by using opposite beam from every line are called vertical angles.

Vertical angle Theorem If two lines crossing at a allude P, then the upright angles created will always have the very same measure.

Vertical Axis See: name: coordinates Plane.

Volume A measure of space; the number of unit cubes needed to fill a three-dimensional shape.

Whole Numbers The entirety numbers are the numbers in the following never-ending sequence: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, ....

x-axis The horizontal axis of a coordinate plane.

x-coordinate The an initial number detailed in an notified pair (a, b).

y-coordinate The 2nd number provided in an bespeak pair (a, b).

y-axis The upright axis that a name: coordinates plane.

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Zero Pair For any kind of natural number n, n + (−n) is called a zero pair because their sum is zero.