The first element of the regular table, hydrogen, is a nonmetal. In the instance of the alkali metals of team 1, however, one finds the lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and also francium all exhibit to a high degree typically metallic properties. Every of this atoms has one electron in the outermost energy level. The energies forced to pull turn off these single valence electron are relatively small; on the various other hand, the energies required to pull turn off a 2nd electron are countless times higher.

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Group 2 the the regular table includes the facets beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and radium. These facets are well-known as the alkaline planet metals. In each of the group 2 elements, there space two electrons in the outer-most power level. Going under the team from beryllium come radium, one find decreasing ionization potentials with raising ionic radius. In general, the bigger atoms organize their electrons much less tightly than do the smaller sized atoms. Although the first two electrons room removed relatively easy, removed of a third electron indigenous the team 2 facets requires very high energies.

Groups 3 through 12 in the routine table are known as the change elements. The most characteristic residential property of the shift elements is that they are all metals. This is due to the fact that the outermost electron shells that these facets contain very couple of electrons. Uneven the group 1 and also 2 elements, the transition metals often tend to it is in hard, brittle, and fairly high melting. The distinction is early in part to the reasonably small dimension of the transition element radii, and partly to the existence of some covalent bonding in between the ions.

The team 13 elements have the same partnership to the alkaline earth aspects that the alkaline earth aspects have come the alkali metals, the is, the team properties room modified by the visibility of a third valence electron. The aspects of group 13 space boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium. Other than for boron, which might be classified as a semimetal, these facets tend to show metallic properties.

Group 14 facets include carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and also lead. As currently noted, carbon develops a solid of facility structure the does no exhibit metallic properties. The second and 3rd members of the group, silicon and germanium, can not be classified as metals either; they are just semimetals.

In group 15, there is a complete readjust of properties from nonmetallic come metallic in going under the group. The lighter members, nitrogen and phosphorous, are frequently nonmetals. The center members, arsenic and also antimony, are semimetals. The most difficult member, bismuth, is a metal.

The group 16 aspects include oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. As would certainly be supposed from their place on the far right the the routine table, the team 16 aspects have high ionization potentials, and metallic nature are difficult to observe. However, in going under the group, electron are less tightly held; so there is some tip of metallic habits in the heavier group 16 elements.

The group 17 elements, i.e., fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine, all have high electronegativities and also consequently show virtually no metallic properties. Iodine, however, does display some metallic characteristics. Astatine may have actually some metallic properties, yet it is a short-lived radioactive element, and measurements that its nature are daunting to lug out.

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The team 18 elements, or noble gases, consist of of 6 gases: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and also radon. The noble gases space nonmetals.