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Schematic representation of the framework of pyrite (FeS2) as based upon a cubic array of ferrous iron cations (Fe2+) and also sulfur anions (S−).

Traditionally, minerals have actually been explained as resulting exclusively from not natural processes; however, present mineralogic exercise often includes as minerals those compounds that are organically produced but satisfy all various other mineral requirements. Aragonite (CaCO3) is an example of one inorganically formed mineral that also has an organically produced, yet otherwise identical, counterpart; the covering (and the pearl, if it is present) of an oyster is created to a large extent that organically created aragonite. Minerals also are developed by the human body: hydroxylapatite is the chief ingredient of bones and teeth, and also calculi are concretions of mineral substances uncovered in the urinary system.


While minerals room classified in a reasonable manner follow to their significant anionic (negatively charged) chemical constituents into teams such together oxides, silicates, and nitrates, castle are called in a far less scientific or regular way. Names may be assigned to reflect a physics or chemistry property, such together colour, or they might be obtained from miscellaneous subjects understood appropriate, such as, because that example, a locality, windy figure, or mineralogist. Some examples of mineral names and also their derivations follow: albite (NaAlSi3O8) is native the Latin word (albus) because that “white” in referral to that is colour; goethite (FeO ∙ OH) is in honour of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German poet; manganite (MnO ∙ OH) reflects the mineral’s composition; franklinite (ZnFe2O4) is named after Franklin, brand-new Jersey, U.S., the site of its incident as the leading ore mineral because that zinc (Zn); and also sillimanite (Al2SiO4) is in honour the the American chemist Benjamin Silliman. Due to the fact that 1960 the commission on brand-new Minerals and Mineral names of the global Mineralogical Association has actually reviewed explanation of new minerals and proposals for new mineral names and has test to remove inconsistencies. Any new mineral name should be approved by this committee, and the type material is typically stored in a museum or college collection.

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Specimen reflecting bright fluorescent colour resulting from ultraviolet irradiation of calcite (calcium carbonate; red fluorescence) v grains that franklinite (a zinc, manganese, and also iron oxide; black color coloration), i beg your pardon is nonfluorescent. Veins and also grains that willemite (a zinc silicate; environment-friendly fluorescence) also appear.