Lead

aspect 82 of periodic table is Lead through atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.2. Lead, price Pb, has a Face focused Cubic structure and SlateGray color. Lead is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of lead is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Lead Facts, physics Properties, chemistry Properties, electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Lead (/lɛd/) is a chemical facet in the carbon team with prize Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and also atomic number 82. Command is a soft, malleable and also heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, yet it soon tarnishes come a dull grayish shade when exposed come air.

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Lead Facts

Read vital information and also facts around element Lead

name Lead
atomic Number 82
atom Symbol Pb
Atomic load 207.2
step Solid
shade SlateGray
Classification post-transition metal
team in routine Table 14
Group Name carbon family
period in periodic Table 6
Block in periodic Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Melting allude 327.46 °C
Boiling point 1749 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4>
CAS Number CAS7439-92-1

ar
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to locate Lead on routine Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atomic number, variety of protons in the nucleus i m sorry is same as variety of electrons. The atom number rises from left come right. Routine table beginning at top left ( atomic number 1) and also ends at bottom best (atomic number 118). Because of this you can straight look because that atomic number 82 to uncover Lead on routine table.

Another method to read routine table and also locate an facet is through using team number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lead on periodic table look for cross ar of team 14 and period 6 in the contemporary periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare command with other elements

Lead History

The facet Lead was uncovered by Middle east in year 4000 BC in unknown ar . Lead obtained its name from English indigenous (plumbum in Latin)

Lead Presence: variety in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the diversity of command in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
abundance in cosmos 1×10-6%
diversity in sun 1×10-6%
variety in Meteorites 1.4e-06
Abundance in Earth"s crust 9.9e-06
abundance in seas 3×10-9%
diversity in human beings 1.7e-06

Crystal framework of Lead

The hard state structure of lead is Face focused Cubic.

The decision structure deserve to be described in regards to its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats chin in three dimensional room to form the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
495.08 495.08 495.08 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angle (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The location of the atoms within the unit cabinet are explained by the collection of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured indigenous a recommendation lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are defined by the principle of space groups. All feasible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional room are defined by the 230 room groups (219 unique types, or 230 if chiral copies are taken into consideration distinct.

an are Group name Fm_ 3m
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room Group Number 225
Crystal structure Face focused Cubic

Lead Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lead atoms have actually 82 electrons and also the digital shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4> with Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.


atomic Number 82
Number of electron (with no charge) 82
Number of Protons 82
Mass Number 207
Number the Neutrons 125
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4>
Electron configuration 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Valence Electrons 6s2 6p2
Oxidation State -4;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell framework of lead - electrons per power level


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Ground State electronic Configuration of command - neutral command atom

The soil state digital configuration the Neutral command atom is 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The part of lead configuration that is indistinguishable to the noble gas that the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with countless electrons, this notation can become prolonged and for this reason an abbreviation notation is used.This is vital as that is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, electrons in the outermost shell that recognize the chemical properties that the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration of neutral lead

Complete ground state electronic configuration because that the command atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Atomic framework of Lead

Lead atomic radius is 154 pm, when it"s covalent radius is 147 pm.

atomic Radius

154 pm (1.54 Å)

Atomic Volume 18.2716049383 cm3
Covalent Radius 147 afternoon (1.47 Å)
valve der Waals Radius 202 pm
neutron Cross section 0.171 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum the Lead

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Lead chemistry Properties: command Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of command is 35.1 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.33
ElectronAffinity 35.1 kJ/mol

Ionization power of command

Refer come table below for Ionization energies of Lead

Ionization power number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 715.6
2 1450.5
3 3081.5
4 4083
5 6640

Lead physics Properties

Refer to below table for Lead physics Properties

density 11.34 g/cm3
Molar Volume 18.2716049383 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 16 GPa
Shear Modulus 5.6 GPa
mass Modulus 46 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.44

Hardness of command - tests to measure up of Hardness that Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 38.3 MPa

Lead electrical Properties

command is Conductor the electricity. Describe table below for the electric properties of command

electrical Conductivity 4.8×106 S/m
Resistivity 2.1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting allude 7.2

Lead Heat and also Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 35 W/(m K)
Thermal growth 0.0000289 K-1

Lead Magnetic Properties

Magnetic kind Diamagnetic
Curie point N/A
fixed Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.11×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7e-05

Optical properties of Lead

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic properties of Lead

rate of Sound 1260 m/s

Lead heat Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer come table listed below for heat properties that Lead

Melting suggest 600.61 K (327.46 °C)
Boiling point 2022 K (1749 °C)
an important Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude 7.2

Enthalpies the Lead

warm of fusion 4.77 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 178 kJ/mol
warmth of combustion N/A

Lead isotope - nuclear Properties of lead

Isotopes that rhodium. Naturally occurring Lead has 4 steady isotope - 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.


Isotope Isotope mass % diversity T half Decay mode
178Pb
179Pb
180Pb
181Pb
182Pb
183Pb
184Pb
185Pb
186Pb
187Pb
188Pb
189Pb
190Pb
191Pb
192Pb
193Pb
194Pb
195Pb
196Pb
197Pb
198Pb
199Pb
200Pb
201Pb
202Pb
203Pb
204Pb 1.4% secure N/A
205Pb
206Pb 24.1% stable N/A
207Pb 22.1% secure N/A
208Pb 52.4% steady N/A
209Pb
210Pb
211Pb
212Pb
213Pb
214Pb
215Pb

Regulatory and also Health - Health and Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-92-1
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000
dot Hazard class N/A
period Numbers 3077
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA perils N/A
NFPA wellness Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition suggest N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of unique identifiers to find the aspect in assorted chemical registry databases

Database id number
CAS Number - chemical Abstracts business (CAS) CAS7439-92-1
CID Number CID5352425
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000

Compare Lead through all Group 14 elements

command vs Carbon command vs Silicon lead vs Germanium command vs Tin lead vs Flerovium

Compare Lead through all post-transition metal elements

lead vs Aluminium lead vs Gallium lead vs Indium lead vs Tin command vs Thallium lead vs Bismuth command vs Nihonium lead vs Flerovium lead vs Moscovium lead vs Livermorium