Tutorial for reporting statistics in an APA style manuscript, including using special scripts/symbols and the Equation Editor function in Word 2011 for Mac. ...

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To make the text as concise as possible, it is appropriate to insert symbols where you can use them. Rather spelling out the Greek letter "chi," click on Insert in the top menu and click on Symbol, then Symbol Browser. A separate Media window opens, which contains Greek letters in the Symbols tab. Notice that the list begins with capital letters (alpha through omega). But statistical symbols are usually composed of lowercase letters. Choose the lowercase symbol for "chi," which will be entered in the same font you are using. If the symbol does not appear in the document, put your cursor into the document and click the symbol again. And rather than typing out the word "squared," type the number 2 in a superscript font. Subscripts and superscripts can be found in the Home tab, within the Font box options... and can also be set in the top menu by clicking Format, then Font. Because this is a test of the relationship between 2 variables, we must specify that it is a chi-squared test of independence (as opposed to a goodness-of-fit test, which examines the distribution of only one variable). Similarly, the word “alpha” can be replaced with the Greek letter, and the words "equal to" can be replaced by “=“. Math symbols are still words (APA p. 118), so space around them as you would any other words. If more complex equations (such as reporting regression models) is required,... go to the top menu to click on Insert, and choose Equation. The Equation Tools tab will appear, which contains many helpful unique scripts... such as adding Accents above letters to indicate they are estimations. The Script tool is an alternative way to make a subscript,... and it is especially helpful when you need to attach a subscript AND a superscript to the same symbol, which we will see later in this video. When using the equation editor, letters and other symbols are automatically spaced appropriately, so there is no need to manually type spaces. To report the results of a chi-squared test of independence... (which measures the strength of a relationship between 2 categorical/nominal variables),... begin by reporting the result in plain, understandable language. Make sure you are making a deliberate comparison by stating that one count (or percentage)... was higher than, lower than, or similar to another count (or percentage). After doing this, you can go back and add the appropriate statistics in parentheses after the words that describe them. Eventually, you will become used to the format, and you can type the statistics in text directly as you type out the sentence. Subscripts can be helpful for labeling statistics as belonging to certain groups, or as observed vs. expected counts. After stating the observed result (i.e., the descriptive statistics) in plain language,... add a statement about the statistical significance of the test (i.e., the inferential statistics). If the result was not significant, use the words "similar to" rather than "higher/lower than" when reporting the descriptive statistics. Note that all statistical symbols that are English letters (N, p,…) are italicized (APA pp. 118-121),... but Greek letters are not (APA p. 122). After all statistical test symbols,... you must report the degrees of freedom in parentheses after the symbol (no space between). Chi-squared requires both the df and the sample size. To measure the strength of a relationship between 2 ordinal or continuous (numeric) variables,... such as interval and ratio measurements, use a Pearson correlation coefficient... (or Spearman if at least one variable is ordinal). If you report the Spearman statistic, add a subscript S to the r symbol (APA pp. 118-121). If you have one continuous variable and one categorical variable, you can calculate the mean of the continuous variable in each category/group. To compare only 2 means and reveal how different they are, use a t test (paired-samples if they are the same people, such as a pretest-posttest,... but independent-samples if they are two separate groups, such as men vs. women). Just like the chi-squared test, report the descriptive result in plain language first, adding the means and standard deviations in parentheses for emphasis. Then add a statement about whether the difference was significant. (If not, use the words "similar to" rather than "higher/lower than"). This does not need to be a separate sentence, but can be set off with commas in the same sentence. IMPORTANT: It is not possible to have a p value equal to zero. If the output says it's zero, it just means that the value is so small that it rounds down, so merely indicate that p is less than .001. Because p values only occur between 0 and 1, you do not need to put a zero before the decimal place (see APA p. 113). It is important to calculate an effect size. SPSS does not include Cohen's d, so you will have to calculate it by hand. The formula can be found in your textbook or on Wikipedia (pictured here). It is also important to report the confidence interval to estimate the possible difference between the true population means. If there are more than 2 groups to compare means, use an analysis of variance (ANOVA). If there are more than 2 variables, this is called a factorial ANOVA. The F statistic has two separate df for each effect. The second one is ALWAYS the df for the line labeled "ERROR" in the output. The first df will appear in the line for that particular effect. Note that you must include the zero before the decimal place if it is possible to have a value greater than 1. Report both main effects and the interaction effect,... each of which will have its own F value, p value, and effect size (partial eta-squared). Eta is a Greek letter that resembles a lowercase n. It has a superscript 2 (to indicate it is squared) and a subscript p (to indicate partial). To accomplish this, insert an equation. The Equation Tool called Script will include a box with both a sub- and superscript,... which you can select and then fill the boxes with the appropriate symbols.

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If symbols are automatically italicized in the Equation Editor, unitalicize the Greek letter eta and the number 2.