Identify the departments of the reduced limb and also describe the bones of every regionDescribe the bones and also bony landmarks the articulate at each joint the the reduced limb

Like the top limb, the lower limb is split into 3 regions. The thigh is that part of the lower limb located in between the i know well joint and also knee joint. The foot is particularly the an ar between the knee joint and also the fishing eye joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot. The lower limb consists of 30 bones. These space the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and also phalanges (see ). The femur is the single bone the the thigh. The patella is the kneecap and articulates through the distal femur. The tibia is the larger, weight-bearing bone situated on the medial side of the leg, and the fibula is the slim bone of the lateral leg. The skeletal of the foot are separated into 3 groups. The posterior section of the foot is created by a group of seven bones, every of i m sorry is recognized as a tarsal bone, conversely, the mid-foot includes five elongated bones, each of i m sorry is a metatarsal bone. The toes save on computer 14 small bones, each of i beg your pardon is a phalanx bone of the foot.

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Femur

The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh an ar (). That is the longest and also strongest bone of the body, and also accounts for around one-quarter the a person’s complete height. The rounded, proximal end is the head that the femur, i beg your pardon articulates through the acetabulum the the i know well bone to form the i know well joint. The fovea capitis is a young indentation ~ above the medial side of the femoral head the serves as the site of attachment because that the ligament of the head the the femur. This ligament spans the femur and also acetabulum, however is weak and also provides tiny support for the i know well joint. The does, however, carry an important artery that provides the head the the femur.


Femur and Patella
The femur is the solitary bone that the thigh region. The articulates superiorly v the hip bone at the hip joint, and also inferiorly through the tibia in ~ the knee joint. The patella only articulates v the distal finish of the femur.

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Watch this video to view just how a fracture that the mid-femur is surgically repaired. Exactly how are the two sections of the damaged femur stabilized throughout surgical repair of a broken femur?


Patella

The patella (kneecap) is biggest sesamoid bone that the human body (see ). A sesamoid bone is a bone the is incorporated into the tendon of a muscle where that tendon the cross a joint. The sesamoid bone articulates through the basic bones to prevent damage to the muscle tendon as result of rubbing versus the bones throughout movements that the joint. The patella is discovered in the tendon the the quadriceps femoris muscle, the huge muscle of the anterior thigh the passes throughout the anterior knee to connect to the tibia. The patella articulates v the patellar surface ar of the femur and thus avoids rubbing that the muscle tendon against the distal femur. The patella likewise lifts the tendon away from the knee joint, which boosts the leverage power of the quadriceps femoris muscle as it acts across the knee. The patella does not articulate with the tibia.




The cuboid bone articulates with the anterior finish of the calcaneus bone. The cuboid has a deep groove running throughout its inferior surface, which gives passage for a muscle tendon. The talus bone articulates anteriorly with the navicular bone, which subsequently articulates anteriorly through the three cuneiform (“wedge-shaped”) bones. These bones are the medial cuneiform, the intermediary cuneiform, and also the lateral cuneiform. Each of this bones has a broad superior surface and a narrow inferior surface, i beg your pardon together create the transverse (medial-lateral) curvature of the foot. The navicular and also lateral cuneiform bones likewise articulate v the medial next of the cuboid bone.


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View this link to learn about a bunion, a localized ede on the medial side of the foot, beside the very first metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the huge toe. What is a bunion and what kind of shoe is most most likely to cause this to develop?


Arches of the Foot

When the foot come into call with the ground during walking, running, or jumping activities, the impact of the body load puts a remarkable amount of pressure and force top top the foot. Throughout running, the force applied to every foot as it contacts the ground deserve to be approximately 2.5 times her body weight. The bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles that the foot absorb this force, thus substantially reducing the quantity of shock the is happen superiorly into the reduced limb and also body. The arcs of the foot play an important role in this shock-absorbing ability. Once weight is applied to the foot, these arcs will flatten somewhat, thus soaking up energy. Once the load is removed, the arch rebounds, offering “spring” come the step. The arches additionally serve to distribution body weight side to side and to either end of the foot.

The foot has a transverse arch, a medial longitudinal arch, and also a lateral longitudinal arch (see ). The transverse arch develops the medial-lateral curvature the the mid-foot. It is developed by the wedge forms of the cuneiform bones and bases (proximal ends) the the first to fourth metatarsal bones. This arch help to distribution body load from side to next within the foot, thus allowing the foot to accommodate uneven terrain.

The longitudinal arcs run under the size of the foot. The lateral longitudinal arch is reasonably flat, conversely, the medial longitudinal arch is bigger (taller). The longitudinal arcs are developed by the tarsal bones posteriorly and the metatarsal bones anteriorly. These arcs are supported at either end, wherein they contact the ground. Posteriorly, this assistance is listed by the calcaneus bone and also anteriorly by the heads (distal ends) of the metatarsal bones. The talus bone, i m sorry receives the weight of the body, is situated at the peak of the longitudinal arches. Body load is then conveyed indigenous the talus come the ground by the anterior and posterior ends of this arches. Solid ligaments unite the surrounding foot bones to stop disruption the the arcs during load bearing. Top top the bottom the the foot, extr ligaments tie with each other the anterior and posterior end of the arches. This ligaments have elasticity, which enables them come stretch somewhat throughout weight bearing, thus permitting the longitudinal arches to spread. The extending of these ligaments stores energy within the foot, quite than happen these pressures into the leg. Convulsion of the foot muscles additionally plays an essential role in this power absorption. As soon as the weight is removed, the elastic ligaments recoil and pull the end of the arcs closer together. This restore of the arches releases the stored energy and also improves the energy efficiency of walking.

Stretching of the ligaments that assistance the longitudinal arcs can lead to pain. This can take place in overweight individuals, with civilization who have jobs that involve was standing for lengthy periods of time (such together a waitress), or go or running lengthy distances. If extending of the ligaments is prolonged, excessive, or repeated, it can result in a progressive lengthening that the sustaining ligaments, with succeeding depression or collapse of the longitudinal arches, an especially on the medial next of the foot. This condition is dubbed pes planus (“flat foot” or “fallen arches”).


Chapter Review

The reduced limb is separated into three regions. These are the thigh, located in between the hip and also knee joints; the leg, located between the knee and also ankle joints; and also distal to the ankle, the foot. There space 30 bones in each reduced limb. These space the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, seven tarsal bones, five metatarsal bones, and also 14 phalanges.

The femur is the single bone of the thigh. The rounded head articulates v the acetabulum the the hip bone to kind the hip joint. The head has the fovea capitis because that attachment that the ligament of the head that the femur. The narrow neck joins inferiorly v the greater and lesser trochanters. Passing in between these bony expansions room the intertrochanteric heat on the anterior femur and the bigger intertrochanteric stakes on the posterior femur. ~ above the posterior shaft of the femur is the gluteal tuberosity proximally and also the linea aspera in the mid-shaft region. The broadened distal end consists of three articulating surfaces: the medial and also lateral condyles, and the patellar surface. The external margins that the condyles space the medial and lateral epicondyles. The adductor tubercle is on the superior facet of the medial epicondyle.

The patella is a sesamoid bone situated within a muscle tendon. The articulates v the patellar surface ar on the anterior side of the distal femur, thereby protecting the muscle tendon native rubbing versus the femur.

The leg contains the large tibia on the medial side and the slender fibula top top the lateral side. The tibia bear the load of the body, whereas the fibula does no bear weight. The interosseous border of every bone is the attachment website for the interosseous membrane of the leg, the connective organization sheet the unites the tibia and fibula.

The proximal tibia consists of the broadened medial and also lateral condyles, i beg your pardon articulate v the medial and lateral condyles of the femur to kind the knee joint. Between the tibial condyles is the intercondylar eminence. Top top the anterior side of the proximal tibia is the tibial tuberosity, i beg your pardon is constant inferiorly v the anterior border that the tibia. ~ above the posterior side, the proximal tibia has the curved soleal line. The bony expansion on the medial next of the distal tibia is the medial malleolus. The groove on the lateral next of the distal tibia is the fibular notch.

The head the the fibula forms the proximal end and articulates v the underside the the lateral condyle that the tibia. The distal fibula articulates through the fibular notch that the tibia. The increased distal finish of the fibula is the lateral malleolus.

The posterior foot is created by the seven tarsal bones. The talus articulates superiorly with the distal tibia, the medial malleolus the the tibia, and the lateral malleolus the the fibula to type the ankle joint. The talus articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus bone. The sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus help to assistance the talus. Anterior come the talus is the navicular bone, and also anterior to this are the medial, intermediate, and also lateral cuneiform bones. The cuboid bone is anterior come the calcaneus.

The five metatarsal bones kind the anterior foot. The base of these bones articulate v the cuboid or picture writing bones. The metatarsal heads, at your distal ends, articulate through the proximal phalanges of the toes. The large toe (toe number 1) has proximal and distal phalanx bones. The remaining toes have proximal, middle, and distal phalanges.

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Watch this video clip to view how a fracture of the mid-femur is operation repaired. How are the two sections of the damaged femur stabilized throughout surgical repair of a broken femur?


A hole is drilled right into the higher trochanter, the bone marrow (medullary) space inside the femur is enlarged, and finally an intramedullary rod is placed into the femur. This pole is then anchored to the bone v screws.