The migration of the Bantu civilization from their beginnings in southern West Africa experienced a gradual population movement sweep through the central, eastern, and also southern parts of the continent beginning in the mid-2nd millennium BCE and finally ending before 1500 CE. With them, the Bantu brought new technologies and an abilities such together cultivating high-yield crops and iron-working which produced more efficient tools and weapons. Eventually, the Bantu dominated, with the exemption of south Africa and also the Namibian desert, all of the african continent south of a heat crossing from southerly Nigeria to Kenya. In all, some 500 languages spoken today in that substantial area are acquired from the Proto-Bantu language. Back most chroniclers would agree on the general occurrence of the Bantu migrations throughout Africa, the an exact timings, motivations, routes, and aftermath are every still gift debated.

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The Bantu

The Bantu were agriculturalists that spoke miscellaneous dialects of the Bantu language. Their heartland to be the savannah and rain forest regions roughly the Niger river of southerly West Africa (modern Nigeria, Cameroon, and Gabon). Making use of both stone and stole tools, they properly grew crops such together millet, sorghum, dry rice, beans, oil palms, and also melons, although they go so at a subsistence level, the is they thrived only sufficient plants to accomplish their own needs. They had the an innovation to produce iron native iron ore, but where this come from is not known except that the 3 most likely possibles are: the understanding was presented by the Phoenicians in the north, the Egyptians or Kushites in the east, or it was got locally and independently.


The Bantu"s iron tools improved agricultural yields & their iron weapons made lock formidable army opponents.

The Bantu people"s iron devices improved farming yields and also their iron tools made them formidable military opponents. Lock were additionally hunters, pet herders (goats, sheep, and cattle), potters, weavers and also traders, exchanging such products as salt, copper, and iron ore because that those things they needed.

Migration east & South

During the 2nd millennium BCE, small populace groups of Bantu started to migrate into main Africa and also then throughout to the an excellent Lakes region of east Africa. This movement can be traced by the examine of linguistics - a an approach known together lexicostatistics - and observation the the family member closeness of regional languages to every other and also the language originally talked by the Bantu people of the Niger flow delta: Proto-Bantu. In ~ the exact same time, one should be careful with such researches as the passage of a language might not have to reflect the hike of its speakers. The same can be claimed of cultural practices and also technologies.

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Historians indicate the factor for the Bantu migration might be any kind of one or much more of the complying with :

exhaustion of local resources - farming land, grazing lands, and also forestsoverpopulationfamineepidemicsincreased compete for local resourcesclimate change affecting cropsa heart of adventure

It to be the Bantu world who founded the coastal settlements of eastern Africa, what would certainly become, with the enhancement of Muslim traders indigenous Arabia and Persia from the 7th century CE, the Swahili Coast. From southern West Africa (the West Bantu) and also the good Rift sink of eastern Africa (the eastern Bantu) two streams the Bantu individuals then moved additional south in a second wave of migration which emerged during the first millennium BCE. A 3rd wave the migration, in the very first half the the first millennium CE, climate took ar as the eastern Bantu peoples moved even further south into what is now Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique, and also eastern south Africa.