There are mostly two develops of bonding that an atom can participate in: Covalent and Ionic. Covalent bonding entails the sharing of electrons between two or an ext atoms. Ionic bonds form when two or an ext ions come together and also are organized together by charge differences.

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So how do you recognize what sort of link an atom will certainly make? that is actually the basic part. Metals and also Non-Metals when merged make ionic compounds. Non-Metals when an unified with other Non-Metals make covalent compounds. So all you require to be able to do is number out what facets are Metals and which space Non-Metals. Because that that details we deserve to use the regular table:


Tutorial - Covalent Bonding© 2008 WGBH education Foundation. All civil liberties Reserved.

Covalent Bonds

As we stated before, the electrons in one atom room what is responsible for creating bonds. What we did not talk about previously is which electrons in the atom are associated in bonding. The bonding electrons are referred to as the VALENCE electrons and also they space the electrons the are found in the outermost shell of the atom. In the routine table below, you have the right to see diagrams of each aspect that reflects how many valence electrons it possesses. Conveniently, the team Number at the peak of each tower in the regular table also gives the variety of valence electrons. Because that example, Boron (represented as B in the regular table) is in team 3A and has 3 valence electrons; Carbon (represented together C) is in team 4A and also has 4 valence electrons.


Once you know how numerous valence electrons an atom has, you deserve to start to construct molecules. There are a pair of rule to follow but as friend build:

The Octet Rule: The atom that get involved in covalent bonding share electron in a means that permits them to gain a stable electron configuration, or full valence shell. This method that they want to acquire the digital configuration of the noble gas of your row. The Noble Gases are choose the Michael Jordan"s of the yellowcomic.comistry world and every one of them wants to "be favor Mike".There are number of exceptions come the octet ascendancy however:Hydrogen (H) only requires 2 electron to have actually a complete valence shell because it only requirements to be choose Helium (He).Elements on the third Period (3rd row) of the routine table and below deserve to actually have more than 8 electrons roughly them. They have actually extra room to allow for the extra electrons.

Now that you know the number of valence electrons and the rule you can start do molecules. For instance, looking at hydrogen we understand that the is in team I and also thus has 1 valence electron, if it bound itself to another hydrogen they could share the 2 electrons between them and also both it is in "happy". See below.


If that very same hydrogen bonded to Chlorine, the hydrogen would get the 2 electrons it needs to be complete and the chlorine which has 7 valence electrons would gain the one much more to fulfil the octet. Check out above.

Now that you can type covalent compounds we have to go over how to name these compounds. Nomenclature is the fancy means of speak the rules because that naming.

Covalent compound Nomenclature

1. The first element is called first, using the facets name:

SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride

2. 2nd element is named using the suffix "-ide"

SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride (Fluorine i do not care Fluoride)

3. Prefixes are offered to signify the number of atoms

SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride (There room 6 Fluorines for this reason Hexa is provided as the prefix)

4. "Mono" is not offered to name the first element

SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride (Note the there is just one Sulfur however no Mono prefix)

Note: once the addition of the Greek prefix areas two vowels nearby to one another, the "a" (or the "o") at the end of the Greek prefix is commonly dropped; e.g., "nonaoxide" would be composed as "nonoxide", and "monooxide" would certainly be composed as "monoxide". The "i" at the finish of the prefixes "di-" and "tri-" are never ever dropped.

Ionic Bonding

Ionic bond are created by the combination of confident and an unfavorable ions; the mix of this ions kind in number combinations that generate a neutral (zero charge) molecule.

So just how do you know what kind of ion an facet will form?

Again, our answers have the right to be found using the regular table:


Just similar to the covalent compounds, each ion wishes to kind an octet and be choose the nearest noble gas. Sometimes it is easier for the aspect to get electron(s) (anions) to produce the octet and also sometimes that is much easier for the facet to shed electron(s) (cations). If you look in ~ the routine table above you will keep in mind that the team 1A, 2A and also 3A facets all kind positive ion or Cations. This is due to the fact that it is much easier energetically for those elements to lose 1, 2, or 3 electrons 보다 it would be because that them to get 5, 6 or 7 electrons. The gain or ns of one electron generally requires energy and also once friend exceed the get or loss of 3 electron the energy cost is just too high for most atoms come accomplish. You have to also an alert that the elements on the ideal side that the routine table (the non-metals) in teams 5A, 6A and 7A all form negative ions or Anions for the very same reason.

You have the right to determine the charge that an aspect will kind as an ion by looking in ~ how much that aspect is native the nearest noble gas. Because that example, elements in group 2A are 2 columns away from the nearest noble gas so losing 2 electrons will offer them the noble gas variety of electrons; team 5A aspects are 3 columns away from the nearest noble gas so addition of 3 electrons will work ideal for them and so on.

Tutorial - Ionic Bonding© 2008 WGBH educational Foundation. All civil liberties Reserved.

Forming Ionic Compounds

As was pointed out above, ion come with each other in link to type neutral (uncharged) molecules. This method that the hopeful and an adverse ions have to be well balanced so that their fees all add up come zero:


In the instances to the right, the salt is +1 and also the chloride is -1 so adding them with each other to kind a neutral molecule (positive dues + an unfavorable charges = zero) only requires 1 the each. NaCl

But in the case of calcium which develops a +2 ion and also chlorine which creates a -1 ion, we require two chlorines come balance the charge of the one calcium. CaCl2

Here are a few more general rules come follow once building and naming ionic molecules:

The variety of ions in the link is shown as a subscript after the element"s symbol: MgF2 (Magnesium Fluoride), AlCl3 (Aluminum Chloride), or Al2O3 (Aluminum Oxide)The cation is usually listed first in the compound: MgF2 (Magnesium Fluoride), AlCl3 (Aluminum Chloride), or Al2O3 (Aluminum Oxide)The name of the compound is merely the surname of the positive element followed through the name of the an unfavorable element including the �ide suffix: MgF2 (Magnesium Fluoride), AlCl3 (Aluminum Chloride), or Al2O3 (Aluminum Oxide)

Notice the in ionic nomenclatureyou do not usage the Greek prefixes to show the variety of atoms in the molecule. This is because as yellowcomic.comists we know the number due to the fact that the fee the ions take on is predictable.

So to sum up the process for identifying, writing and naming compounds:


Up until now we have not debated the metals past those in the teams IA, 2A and 3A. The steels in the B teams in the middle of the routine table are also involved in ionic bonding. Your charges as an ion are much less predictable however and they can actually have more than one charge as one ion:


Whenever you create an ionic link that contains a shift metal ion, you have to indicate in the surname which ion you room using by the inclusion of a Roman numeral in the name:

Fe2+ + Br- → FeBr2Iron (II) Bromide

Fe3+ + Br- → FeBr3Iron (III) Bromide

Polyatomic Ions

Another special case for creating and naming compound derives indigenous the existence of polyatomic ions. Polyatomic ions room ions that are consisted of of non-metals that when combined type a fee molecule. A table of the much more common that these ions is shown below:

Common Polyatomic Ions


When a polyatomic ion is part of an ionic link the rules because that assembly are the same: the ion must integrate to make a neutral molecule. But because the polyatomic ion must be treated like a single substance parenthesis space placed about it in the formula if much more than one ion is required.

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For instance, if you an unified Magnesium Ion, Mg2+ and Phosphate Ion, PO43-, to balance the charges you would require 3 magnesium ions and also 2 phosphate ions: Mg3(PO4)2 The parenthesis room placed roughly the polyatomic ion to indicate that the subscript creates a many of the whole ion not simply a single atom. The parentheses room only provided in cases where there is more than one polyatomic ion in the molecule. So because that instance, MgSO4 has the sulfate ion (SO42-) but since only one is compelled to balance the molecule, no parentheses space needed.