Otolaryngology Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A

ABR: listening Brainstem response test (see below)

Acoustic neuroma: A tumor, commonly benign, which may develop on the hearing and also balance nerves and also can reason gradual hearing loss, tinnitus, and/or dizziness.

Anemia: A problem in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in full volume.

Acquired deafness: ns of hearing that occurs or establishes some time throughout the lifespan but is not current at birth.

Adenoid: Lymphoid tissue located behind the nose.

Adjuvant: Therapy offered after the key therapy in bespeak to boost the chance of success, such together chemotherapy or radiation therapy provided after surgery.

Ageusia: lose of the sense of taste.

Albinism: absence of typical pigment in the skin, eyes, and also hair.

Alport Syndrome: A hereditary condition defined by kidney disease, sensorineural listening loss, and also sometimes eye defects.

American sign Language: The hands-on language v its own syntax and grammar, used mainly by world who are deaf.

Ankyloglossia: A foreshortened or tethered lingual frenulum typically known as "tongue-tie" in which the tongue is tethered come the floor of mouth.

Anosmia: The absence of the sense of smell.

Aphasia: The full or partial loss of the ability to use or recognize language; usually caused by stroke (Read about "Stroke") mind disease, or injury.

Aphonia: The complete loss that voice.

Apraxia: The inability to execute a voluntarily movement regardless of being able to demonstrate normal muscle function.

Articulation disorder: The inability to correctly create speech sound (phonemes) due to the fact that of imprecise placement, timing, pressure, speed, or flow of activity of the lips, tongue, or throat.

ASL: American sign Language (see above)

Assistive devices: technical tools and devices such together alphabet boards, text telephones, or text-to-speech counter software offered to aid individuals that have interaction disorders do actions, tasks, and activities.

Aspiration: utilizing a needle come remove fluid or cell from an area that the body.

Anxiety: A debilitating condition of fear, which interferes v normal life functions.

Audiogram: hear test.

Audiologist: A health care professional who is trained to evaluate hearing loss and related disorders, including balance (vestibular) and also tinnitus, and also to rehabilitate people with listening loss and also related disorders. One audiologist provides a range of tests and also procedures to evaluate hearing and also balance duty and to fit and dispense hear aids and other assistive tools for hearing.

Auditory Brainstem response test: A check for mind functioning in comatose, unresponsive, etc., patients, and for hearing in infants and also young children; entails attaching electrodes come the head to document electrical task from the hear nerve and other parts of the brain.

Auditory nerve: The eighth cranial nerve the connects the within ear to the brainstem and is responsible because that hearing and balance.

Auditory perception: The ability to identify, interpret, and attach meaning to sound.

Auditory prosthesis: A machine that substitutes or improves the capacity to hear.

Augmentative devices: tools that aid individuals with restricted or absent speech to communicate, such as interaction boards, pictographs (symbols that look like the points they represent), or ideographs (symbols representing ideas).

Aural rehabilitation: methods used with human being who are hearing impaired to enhance their ability to speak and communicate.

Autoimmune deafness: Occurs once an individual"s immune device produces abnormal antibodies that react versus the body"s healthy tissues, including the within ear.

Autism: A brain disorder that starts in at an early stage childhood and persists transparent adulthood; affects three an important areas that development: communication, social interaction, and creative or imaginative play. (Read about Autism in "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" "Child Development")

Autologous: acquired from the exact same individual.

B Balance: The biological system that allows individuals to understand where their bodies room in the environment and to maintain a wanted position. Normal balance depends on info from the labyrinth in the inside ear, from various other senses such together sight and touch, and also from muscle movement.

Balance disorder: Disruption in the labyrinth, the inner ear body organ that controls the balance system, which allows individuals to know where your bodies are in the environment. The labyrinth works with various other systems in the body, such as the visual and skeletal systems, to maintain posture.

Barotrauma: Injury come the middle ear brought about by a palliation of wait pressure.

Brainstem Implant: An auditory prosthesis that bypasses the cochlea and also auditory nerve. This type of implant helps individuals who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant since the hear nerves space not working.

Branchial: A term offered to describe cysts or sinus tracts that are obtained from indentations in the fetus. The word method pertaining to, or resembling, gills that a fish. There are frequently four possible branchial anomalies in kids that start up close to the ear and also end down close to the collarbone.

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A balance disorder that results in suddenly onset of dizziness, spinning, or vertigo when relocating the head.

Benign tumor: A tumor the is no malignant; it is not a cancer.

Bilateral: A hatchet describing a condition that influence both sides of the human body or 2 paired organs, such together tonsils.

Blepharospasm: A activity disorder involving excessive eye blinking.

BPPV: light paroxysmal positional vertigo (see above).

C Captioning: A text screen of spoken words, gift on a television or a movie display that allows a deaf or hard-of-hearing viewer to follow the dialogue and the action of a regime simultaneously.

Central auditory processing disorder: An i can not qualify to differentiate, recognize or know sounds; hearing and intelligence space normal.

Cerebrovascular accident: absence of blood to the brain, leading to the suddenly loss of speech, language, or the ability to move a body part and, if significant enough, death. Additionally known together stroke.

Cerumen: Earwax.

Chemosensory disorders: diseases or problems associated with the sense of odor or the feeling of taste.

Choanal atresia: A birth defect in which there is no opened in the ago of the nose to affix it to the breathing tube. Babies through this trouble are can not to breathe v their noses.

Cholesteatoma: Skin (epithelium) cultivation in locations it does not belong, have the right to be damaging due to enzymes created by the skin and pressure necrosis. Typically used to describe skin growing in the center ear and mastoid, causing significant infection and erosion.

Cilia: tiny hairs that move mucous in the nose, sinus and windpipe.

Cleft palate: A birth defect leading to opening in the roof that the mouth that may or may not indicate the top lip and/or nose.

Cochlea: A snail-shaped framework in the inner ear, i m sorry is the crucial organ that hearing. This pipe is filled with tiny hair cells, which assist transmit sound into the brain.

Cochlear implants: one electronic an equipment that restores partial hearing to the deaf. It is operation implanted in the inside ear and activated by a device worn outside the ear. The bypasses damaged structures in the inner ear and also directly stimulates the hear nerve, permitting some deaf people to learn to hear and also interpret sounds and speech.

Cognition: Thinking an abilities that incorporate perception, memory, awareness, reasoning, judgment, intellect, and also imagination.

Conductive listening Impairment: hearing loss led to by dysfunction of the outer or middle ear.

Continuous hopeful airway pressure: A device that fits ~ above the face and delivers wait under press in bespeak to keep the airway open, commonly worn at bed time by people with obstructive sleep apnea.

CPAP: constant positive airway push (see above).

Cued speech: A technique of interaction that combines speech analysis with a mechanism of hand shapes placed near the mouth to help deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals differentiate words that look similar on the lips (e.g., bunch vs. Punch) or are concealed (e.g., gag).

Culture: expansion of microbe or viruses because that identification purposes.

CVA: Cerebrovascular accident (see above)

Cyst: A bump filled through either liquid or soft material, arising in any type of organ or tissue; may occur for a variety of reasons but is usually harmless uneven its visibility disrupts body organ or tissue function.

Cytomegalovirus (congenital): One group of herpes viruses that infects humans and also can reason a selection of clinical symptoms, including deafness or hearing impairment; infection with the virus might be either before or after birth.

D Decibel: The unit that steps the intensity or loudness of sound.

Dermoid: A cyst which may be found connected with the nose, eyebrow or neck i m sorry sometimes has connections into the brain. This cyst and also its feasible tract space formed during fetal development.

Deviated septum: Leaning the the septum to one side or the various other of the nose; may produce blockage of a nostril.

Dizziness: physical unsteadiness, imbalance, and also lightheadedness connected with balance disorders.

Dysarthria: A team of speech disorders brought about by disturbances in the toughness or coordination of the muscle of the speech device as a result of damage to the brain or nerves.

Dysequilibrium: any kind of disturbance of balance. (Read around "Balance Disorders")

Dysfluency: Disruption in the smooth flow or expression the speech.

Dysgeusia: Distortion or absence of the sense of taste.

Dyslexia: learning disability defined by analysis difficulties. Some people may also have challenge writing, spelling, or working through numbers.

Dysosmia: Distortion or lack of the feeling of smell.

Dysphagia: challenge swallowing.

Dysphonia - any kind of impairment that the voice or speaking ability.

Dyspraxia the Speech: Partial lose of the ability to repetitively pronounce words in individuals with regular muscle tone and also speech muscle coordination.

Dystonia: Abnormal muscle tone of one or much more muscles.

E Ear drum: A translucent, fibrous drum which separates the outside ear canal from the center ear and is directly attached to the ear skeleton (ossicles). This structure helps command sound waves to mechanical power that outcomes in stimulation the the inside ear.

Ear infection: The presence and also growth of bacteria or viruses in the ear.

Ear wax: A yellow cheap from glands in the external ear (cerumen) that keeps the skin of the ear dry and protected native infection.

Electronystagmogram: A check of the vestibular system, which is offered to assist diagnose balance problems.

Endolymph: The liquid in thelabyrinth (the organ of balance situated in the inside ear that is composed of 3 semicircular canals and the vestibule).

Endoscopic sinus surgery: Looking right into the sinuses and also performing measures on the sinuses through placing versatile telescopes with the nose.

Endoscopy: surgery using a telescope to visualize internal organ with a small incision. Usually less invasive than timeless surgeries and requiring a shorter recovery period.

ENG: Electronystagmogram (see above)

Epiglottis: A small flap-like valve do of cartilage that closes over the voice box (larynx) during swallowing so the food goes under the esophagus.

Epistaxis: Nosebleed.

Esophagus: Swallowing pipe made the muscle the connects the throat through the stomach.

ESS: Endoscopic sinus surgical treatment (see above).

Ethmoid: Sinuses located in between the eyes.

Eustacian tube: The pipe connecting the middle ear to the throat.

External otitis: infection of the external ear canal generally known together "swimmer"s ear."

F Fine needle aspirate: using a needle to remove cells native a tumor to examine under a microscopic lense in stimulate to determine the type of tumor.

FNA: fine needle aspirate (see above).

Frenulum: The membrane of organization connecting the middle of the tongue come the floor the the mouth.

Frontal: Sinuses located in the forehead, commonly of differing sizes and different quantities of development.

G Gastric pull-up: Using component of the stomach to replace the swallowing tube once it has actually been removed, usually because of cancer.

Gastroesophageal reflux: back-up of fluid from the stomach right into the swallowing tube causing heartburn and possible long-term damages to the swallowing tube. Likewise called gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Gastrostomy: A tube the goes directly into the stomach through the skin the the abdomen that allows nutritious liquid to be provided to a human who is unable to eat sufficient food to store them healthy.

GE reflux: Gastroesophageal reflux (see above)

GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (see above)

Gustation: The act or sensation of tasting.

H Hair cells: The sensory cell of the inner ear, which are topped with hair-like structures, the stereocilia, and which transform the mechanical energy of sound waves into nerve impulses.

Haptic sense: The feeling of physical call or touch.

Haptometer: one instrument for measuring sensitivity come touch.

Hearing: A collection of events in which sound tide in the air space converted to electric signals, i m sorry are sent as nerve impulses come the brain, where they are interpreted.

Hearing aid: one electronic device that brings amplified sound to the ear. A hearing aid usually consists of a microphone, amplifier, and receiver.

Hearing disorder: Disruption in the typical hearing procedure that may occur in the outer, center or within ear, whereby sound waves are not convert to electric signals and also nerve impulses space not sent to the mind to be interpreted.

Hereditary listening impairment: Hearing loss passed down with generations of a family.

Hoarseness: one abnormally unstable or harsh-sounding voice resulted in by vocal abuse and also other disorders such together gastroesophageal reflux thyroid problems or trauma to the larynx (voice box).

Hyoid: A bone in the neck suspended between muscles that assist produce the swallowing motion.

Hyperplasia: excessive growth of common cells of one organ.

Hypogeusia: lessened sensitivity come taste.

Hyposmia: diminished sensitivity to smell.

IJK Incus: center ear bone in between the malleus and also the stapes, typically referred to as the "anvil."

Inner ear: The part of the ear that has both the organ of hear (the cochlea) and the organ of balance (the labyrinth).

Kallmann"s Syndrome: A disorder that can encompass several attributes such as absence of the feeling of smell and decreased functional task of the gonads (organs that produce sex cells), affect growth and also sexual development.

L Labyrinth: The body organ of balance situated in the inside ear. The labyrinth is composed of three semicircular canals and also the vestibule.

Labyrinthine hydrops: too much fluid in the body organ of balance (labyrinth); can cause pressure or fullness in the ears, listening loss, dizziness, and loss the balance.

Labyrinthitis: famous or bacterial infection or inflammation of the within ear that can reason dizziness, ns of balance, and temporary hearing loss.

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: A childhood disorder of unknown origin, which frequently extends into adulthood and can be figured out by gradual or suddenly loss the the capability to understand and use spoken language.

Language: A device for interacting ideas and feelings making use of sounds, gestures, signs, or marks.

Language disorders: any of a number of problems with verbal communication and the capacity to use or recognize a symbol system for communication.

Laryngeal neoplasms: Abnormal growths in the larynx (voice box) that deserve to be cancer or noncancerous.

Laryngeal nodules: Noncancerous, callous-like growths on the inner components of the vocal crease (vocal cords); usually brought about by vocal abuse or misuse.

Laryngeal paralysis: ns of function or emotion of one or both the the vocal folds led to by injury or condition to the nerves that the larynx.

Laryngectomy: surgery to remove part or every one of the larynx (voice box).

Laryngitis: A hoarse voice or the complete loss the the voice since of wake up to the vocal crease (vocal cords).

Laryngomalacia: A term used to define floppiness of the valves over the voice crate that creates a noise as the child breathes in i m sorry is usually high-pitched and is specifically heard throughout feeding.

Laryngoscopy: Looking right into the larynx through a lighted telescope.

Larynx: A term used to identify the voice box, which contains the vocal cords and also structures which help produce sound. This structure likewise separates the airway indigenous the breathing pipe while swallowing by closing. Voice or other sounds are created when the vocal cords accomplish in the middle.

Laser helped uvulopalatoplasty: Narrowing of the palate and removal that the uvula through laser energy to decrease snoring and also sleep apnea.

LAUP: Laser helped uvulopalatoplasty (see above)

Learning disabilities: Childhood disorders defined by difficulty with certain an abilities such as reading or composing in individuals with normal intelligence.

Lymph node dissection: remove of the lymph glands in the area near a tumor in bespeak to identify if they are involved with cancer and also to remove any type of cancer situated within them.

Lymphadenectomy: removal of the lymph glands in the area near a tumor in stimulate to recognize if lock are connected with cancer and to remove any kind of cancer situated within them.

Lymphadenopathy: Enlargement of lymph nodes usually associated with inflammation or infection, generally known together "swollen glands."

M Malleus: The ear bone that straight connects the various other ossicles to the tympanic membrane, likewise commonly described as the "hammer" bone.

Mandible: The “jaw bone” come which the reduced teeth space attached.

Maxilla: The bone to which the upper teeth space attached.

Maxillary sinuses: Sinuses located behind the cheeks.

Mastoid: The skull bone behind the ear.

Mastoidectomy: creating an opening and also removing infected bone caused by severe, advanced ear infection.

Mastoiditis: epidemic of the mastoid bone because of severe, advanced ear infection.

Meige Syndrome: A movement disorder that have the right to involve excessive eye blinking (blepharospasm) with involuntary activities of the jaw muscles, lips, and also tongue (oromandibular dystonia).

M�ni�re"s Disease: An inside ear disorder that can influence both hearing and balance. It can reason episodes of vertigo, hear loss, tinnitus, and the emotion of fullness in the ear.

Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, the membranes the envelop the brain and the spinal cord; may reason hearing lose or deafness.

Metastasis: Malignant growths that come from a cancer somewhere else in the body.

Metastatic: A tumor that has spread come one or more parts of the body.

Middle Ear: part of the ear that contains the eardrum and also three small bones of the middle ear, ending at the round home window that leader to the within ear.

Misarticulation: Inaccurately created speech sound (phoneme) or sounds.

Motion Sickness: Dizziness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, and generalized uncomfortable experienced when an separation, personal, instance is in motion.

Motor speech Disorders: team of disorders led to by the inability to accurately create speech sound (phonemes) since of muscle weakness or incoordination or challenge performing voluntary muscle movements.

N Nasopharyngoscopy: Looking right into the nose and throat and also inspecting the vocal cords making use of a versatile telescope.

Neck dissection: removal of the lymph glands and some the the muscles on one side of the neck in stimulate to determine if lock are connected with cancer and to remove any cancer located within them.

Neoadjuvant: therapy given prior to the key therapy in stimulate to boost the opportunity of success, such together chemotherapy or radiation treatment given prior to surgery.

Neuropraxia: short-lived decrease of nerve function.

Neural plasticity: The capacity of the brain and/or specific parts of the nervous device to it is adapted to new conditions, such as an injury.

Neural prostheses: The devices that substitute for an injured or diseased part of the nervous system, such as the cochlear implant.

Neural stimulation: to activate or energize a nerve through an outside source.

Neurofibromatosis kind 1 (NF-1 von Recklinghausen"s): A group of inherited obstacle in i m sorry noncancerous tumors prosper on number of nerves that may include the listening nerve. The symptoms of NF-1 incorporate coffee-colored point out on the skin, enlargement or deformation of bones and neurofibromas.

Neurofibromatosis kind 2 (NF-2): A group of inherited obstacle in which noncancerous tumors grow on several nerves that usually encompass the hearing nerve. The symptom of NF-2 include tumors on the hearing nerve which can affect hearing and also balance. NF-2 may take place in the teenage years through hearing loss.

Neurogenic interaction disorder: The i can not qualify to exchange info with others because of hearing, speech, and/or language difficulties caused by impairment of the nervous system (brain or nerves).

Node dissection: removal of the lymph glands in the area near a tumor in order to recognize if lock are associated with cancer and also to remove any cancer located within them.

Noise-Induced hearing Loss: hearing loss resulted in by exposure come harmful sounds, either really loud impulse sound(s) or repetitive exposure to sounds over 90 decibel levels end an extended duration of time that damage the sensitive frameworks of the inner ear.

Nonsyndromic Hereditary listening Impairment: Hearing ns or deafness the is inherited and also is not associated with other inherited clinical characteristics.

O Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstruction of breathing by the palate, tongue and/or nose during sleep.

OCR: Ossicular chain reconstruction (see below).

Odorant: A substance the stimulates the feeling of smell.

Olfaction: The action of smelling.

Olfactometer: A device for estimating the intensity of the feeling of smell.

Open-set speech recognition: understanding speech without visual clues (speech reading).

Oromandibular dystonia: Involuntary motions of the jaw muscles, lips, and tongue.

OSA: Obstructive sleep apnea (see above).

Ossicle: A basic term for any type of of the three ear bones.

Ossicular chain reconstruction: removal of the damaged ear bones and replacement with man-made bones.

Otitis media: infection of the middle ear, the area behind the eardrums.

Otitis externa: Inflammation of the outer part of the ear expanding to the hear canal, commonly called “swimmer"s ear.”

Otoacoustic emissions: Low-intensity sounds developed by the within ear that can be easily measured with a perceptible microphone placed in the ear canal.

Otolaryngologist: A physician/surgeon that specializes in illness of the ears, nose, throat, and also head and also neck.

Otologist: A physician/surgeon that specializes in illness of the ear.

Otoplasty: surgery to improve the illustration of the ears, generally attaching the ears an ext closely to the head once they rod out much more than the person would prefer or if they room uneven.

Otorrhea: Discharge indigenous the ear.

Otosclerosis: Abnormal expansion of bone causing fixation that the ear skeletal in the center ear, frequently involving the stapes or "stirrup" bone. This prevents structures in ~ the ear from functioning properly and causes hear loss. Because that some world with otosclerosis, the hearing lose may come to be severe. This problem may show off the cochlea resulting in nerve hear loss.

Ototoxic drugs: drugs such together a special class of antibiotics, aminoglycoside antibiotics, that can damage the hearing and balance organs situated in the within ear for some individuals.

Outer ear: The external portion of the ear, consisting of the pinna, or auricle, and also the ear canal.

P Palate: Roof of the mouth.

Panendoscopy: making use of telescopes come look in the nose, mouth, throat, and also larynx.

Panorex: an x-ray study in i beg your pardon the x-ray maker moves about the head in bespeak to display the mandible and maxilla also as every one of the teeth.

Papillomavirus: team of viruses that can cause noncancerous wartlike tumors to thrive on the surface of skin and internal organs such as the respiratory tract; deserve to be life-threatening.

Parathyroid: tiny glands situated in the neck, which develop a hormone known as parathyroid hormone that regulates the level the calcium in the blood. There room usually two glands on each side that the neck behind the thyroid however they might be in other locations in the neck and even in the chest.

Parathyroid hormone: A hormone developed by the parathyroid gland once the level the calcium in the blood it s okay low. Obstacle of the parathyroid result in too much production that parathyroid hormone and also high level of calcium in the blood.

Parathyroidectomy: removed of one or an ext of the parathyroid glands.

Paresis: Partial paralysis, might be temporary

Parosmia: Any disease or perversion that the feeling of smell, specifically the spatu perception of odors that perform not exist.

Parotid: one of the three major salivary glands the supply saliva come the mouth. These glands are situated in front of the ears on both political parties of the face and also produce mucous that travels v a glands and also empties into the mouth just opposite the top teeth on every side. These glands swollen up once a patient has viral epidemic (i.e. Mumps).

Parotidectomy: removal of component or all of the parotid gland.

Perception (hearing): The process of understanding or being conscious of info through the ear.

Perilymph: fluid in the balance-controlling portion of the middle ear that flows with transforming direction the the head, help to keep balance.

Perilymph Fistula - leakage of within ear liquid to the middle ear the occurs without obvious cause or the is associated with head trauma, physical exertion, or barotrauma.

Pervasive developmental disorders: Disorders characterized by delays in several areas of development that may encompass socialization and communication.

Pheromones: chemistry substances secreted by an pet that elicit a particular behavioral or physiological solution in another pet of the exact same species.

Phonology: The research of decided sounds.

Postlingually deafened: one individual that becomes deaf ~ having acquired language.

Prelingually deafened: an individual who is either born deaf or who shed his or she hearing at an early stage in childhood, prior to acquiring language.

Presbycusis: The loss of listening that progressively occurs because of transforms in the within or middle ear in individuals as they prosper older.

Primary tumor: The component of the body or body organ where the cancer began to grow first.

PTH: Parathyroid hormone (see above).

QR Reading disorders: any kind of of a group of problems identified by an obstacle using or knowledge the symbol device for created language.

Reflux: back-up of liquid from one cavity into the cavity where the liquid originally came from, together as fluid from the stomach into the swallowing tube leading to heartburn.

Rhinitis: Inflammation of the sleep lining which have the right to be brought about by infection, allergies, international body, abnormal nerve input, or other inflammatory agents.

Rhinoplasty: surgical treatment to improve the illustration of the nose.

Rhinorrhea: Discharge native the nose.

Round window: The membrane separating the middle ear and also inner ear.

S

Salivary glands: Glands are found in and around the mouth and also throat. The significant salivary glands space the parotid, submandibular, and also sublingual glands. They every secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid v tubes that drain saliva, dubbed salivary ducts, close to your upper teeth, submandibular under her tongue, and also the sublingual through many ducts in the floor of her mouth.

Sensorineural hear loss: hearing loss led to by damages to the sensory cells and/or nerve fibers of the inside ear.

Septal deviation: Leaning the the septum come one side or the other of the nose; may create blockage that a nostril.

Septum: The cartilage and skin that separates the two nostrils.

Septoplasty: restoration of the septum to exactly septal deviation.

Sign language: A technique of interaction for people who are deaf or hard of listening in i m sorry hand movements, gestures and facial expression convey grammar structure and also meaning.

Sinus: A connection from one cavity to another or a cavity that is linked to one more cavity; usually describes the air spaces in the skull that affix to the ago of the nose.

Sinusitis: Infection involving one or an ext of the sinuses.

SLI: certain Language impairment (see below).

Sleep apnea: Obstruction of breath by the palate, tongue and/or nose throughout sleep; additionally called obstructive sleep apnea.

Smell: to perceive odor or scent with stimuli influence the olfactory nerves.

Smell disorder: The inability to consciousness odors. It might be temporary, caused by a head cold or swelling or blockage that the sleep passages. It deserve to be permanent as soon as any part of the olfactory region is damaged by determinants such as mind injury, tumor, disease, or chronic rhinitis.

Somnoplasty: Narrowing the the palate through radiofrequency energy to to decrease snoring and also sleep apnea.

Sound vocalization: The capability to produce voice.

Spasmodic dysphonia: The short-term disruption that voice led to by involuntary movements of one or much more muscles the the larynx or voice box.

Specific Language Impairment: difficulty with language or the organized-symbol-system used for communication in the absence of problems such as mental retardation, listening loss, or emotional disorders.

Speech: talked communication.

Speech disorder: any defect or abnormality that avoids an separation, personal, instance from connecting by way of spoken words. Speech disorders may develop from nerve injury to the brain muscular paralysis, structural defects, hysteria, or mental retardation.

Speech processor: part of a cochlear implant the converts speech sounds into electric impulses to wake up the auditory nerve, allowing an individual to understand sound and speech.

Speech-Language Pathologist: A health skilled trained to evaluate and also treat civilization who have voice, speech, language, or swallowing obstacle (including hear impairment) that influence their ability to communicate.

Sphenoid: Sinuses situated behind the nose.

Stapes: the smallest of the three center ear skeleton that connect the tympanic membrane through the inside ear. Commonly referred to as the "stirrup" bone.

Stapedectomy: remove of the stapes bone as soon as it is not functioning, and replacing it v an man-made stapes.

Stridor: A term supplied to describe noisy breathing associated with inflammation or narrowing the the voice box or breathing pipe (trachea).

Stoma: opened from an body organ to the exterior such as the tracheal stoma the is current after a tracheotomy.

Stroke: lack of blood to the brain, leading to the suddenly loss of speech, language, or the capacity to relocate a body part and, if significant enough, death. Also known as a cerebrovascular accident.

Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of a stoma (see above) through scar tissue.

Stuttering: regular repetition of words or components of words that disrupts the smooth circulation of speech.

Sudden deafness: The lose of hearing the occurs quickly because of such reasons as explosion, a famous infection, or the usage of some drugs.

Swallowing disorders: any of a group of problems that interferes through the deliver of food from the mouth to the stomach.

Syndromic hearing impairment: Hearing ns or hearing deactivated that, along with other characteristics, is inherited or passed down v generations that a family.

T Tactile: pertained to touch or the feeling of touch.

Tactile devices: Mechanical tools that make use of touch to assist individuals that have particular disabilities, such as deaf-blindness, to communicate.

Taste: The sensation developed by a stimulus applied to the gustatory nerve end in the tongue. The 4 tastes are salt, sour, sweet, and also bitter. Some scientists suggest the presence of a fifth taste, explained as savory.

Taste disorder: The i can not qualify to perceive various flavors. Taste disorders may result from negative oral hygiene, gum disease, hepatitis, or medicines and chemotherapeutic drugs. Taste obstacle may likewise be neurological.

Taste buds: teams of cells situated on the tongue that enable one to recognize different tastes.

TE puncture: Tracheoesophageal puncture (see below)

Temporomandibular joint: The link of the jaw bone to the skull, activity of this joint opens and also closes the mouth.

Throat disorders: obstacle or illness of the larynx (voice box), pharynx or esophagus.

Thyroid: body organ in the neck surrounding the area the the windpipe whereby the voice crate is located. This organ helps regulate metabolism. This gland requires iodine for manufacturing of hormones, thyroxine and also Triiodothyronine. This gland additionally secretes calcitonin.

Thyroidectomy: removed of the thyroid gland.

Thyroplasty: A surgical method to enhance voice by altering the cartilages that the larynx, which homes the vocal folds (vocal cords), in bespeak to readjust the place or size of the vocal folds. Also known together laryngeal frame surgery.

Tinnismus: i can not qualify to totally open the mouth.

Tinnitus: The emotion of a ringing, roaring, or buzzing sound in the ears or head. It is often linked with plenty of forms of hearing impairment and also noise exposure.

TM: Tympanic membrane (see below).

TMJ: Temporomandibular share (see above).

Tongue: The big muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and also swallowing. That is the main organ of taste, and assists in developing speech sounds.

Tonsil: Lymphoid tissue situated in the back of the mouth.

Tonsillitis: epidemic of the tonsils.

Tonsillectomy: remove of one or both tonsils.

Touch: Tactile sense; the sense by which contact with the skin or mucous membrane is experienced.

Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by recurring movements and also sounds (called tics).

Trachea: Windpipe, breathing tube, the framework that connect the earlier of the mouth through the lungs.

Tracheal stenosis: Narrowing of the trachea because of a birth defect or scar tissue formation.

Tracheoesophageal puncture: An opened that is created between the swallowing tube and the breathing pipe to enable people who have had actually their voice boxes gotten rid of to develop speech-like sounds.

Tracheostomy: A surgically developed opening right into the trachea (windpipe) to help someone breathe who has actually an obstruction or ede in the larynx (voice box) or upper throat or who have their larynx operation removed.

Tracheotomy: development of one opening through the neck into the breathing tube (trachea) in order come bypass the mouth and throat. Commonly used when significant obstruction exists above the level of the voice box or when the voice box is removed because of cancer.

Turbinate: framework inside the nose that humidifies and also filters air.

Tympanic membrane: Ear drum.

Tympanic membrane perforation: hole in the ear drum.

Tympanoplasty: fix of the ear drum making use of a job usually made up of tissue taken native a nearby muscle.

U UARS: top airway resistance syndrome (see below).

UPP: Uvulopalatoplasty (see below).

Upper airway resistance syndrome: restriction of breathing by the palate, tongue and/or nose throughout sleep.

Usher Syndrome: A hereditary an illness that affects hearing and vision and also sometimes balance.

Uvula: small "punching bag" the muscle that hangs under in the earlier of the throat, help close the mouth native the nose throughout speech.

Uvulopalatoplasty: Shortening the palate and removal the the uvula come decrease snoring and sleep apnea.

V Velocardiofacial Syndrome: one inherited disorder characterized by slit palate (opening in the roof that the mouth), love defects, characteristic face appearance, minor learning problems, and also speech and also feeding problems.

Velopalatine insufficiency: failure of the palate come adequately block the connection in between the mouth and nose so that the voice sounds differ nasal and also fluid may go into the nose throughout swallowing.

Velum: The area in the earlier of the nose connecting it to the throat and breathing tube.

Vertigo: The illusion the movement; a sensation together if the external human being were revolving around an individual (objective vertigo) or as if the individual were revolving in room (subjective vertigo).

Vestibular neuronitis: an inflammation that the vestibular nerve.

Vestibular system: The system in the body that is responsible for maintaining balance, posture, and also the body"s orientation in space. This system additionally regulates locomotion and other movements and keeps objects in visual focus as the human body moves.

Vestibule: The bony cavity the the inner ear.

Vibrotactile aids: Mechanical instruments that assist individuals who space deaf come detect and also interpret sound through the feeling of touch.

Vocal cords: Muscularized wrinkle of mucous membrane that prolong from the larynx (voice box) wall. The folds are enclosed in elastic vocal ligament and also muscle that regulate the tension and also rate of vibration that the cords as air passes through them. Likewise known as vocal folds.

Vocal cord nodules: little thickenings or "calluses" found on vocal cord which produce hoarseness by enabling air to escape through the vocal cords during speech.

Vocal cord paralysis: The inability of one or both vocal folds (vocal cords) to move because of damages to the brain or nerves. Throughout speech this paralysis allows air to escape and decreases the high quality of the voice.

Vocal folds: watch vocal cords.

Vocal tremor: thrilling or shower of one or an ext of the muscle of the larynx, causing an unsteady-sounding voice.

Voice: The sound produced by air passing out with the larynx and upper respiratory tract.

Voice disorders: A team of problems involving abnormal pitch, loudness, or top quality of the sound developed by the larynx (voice box).

VPI: Velopalatine insufficiency (see above)

W Waardenburg Syndrome - hereditary disorder that is defined by hear impairment, a white shock the hair and/or distinctive blue shade to one or both eyes, and also wide-set within corners that the eyes. Balance troubles are likewise associated through some varieties of Waardenburg syndrome.


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XYZ Xerostomia: dried mouth, commonly after radiation therapy that requires the mouth area.