Black Codes laws that were passed across the southern in an answer tothe Civil rights Act the 1866,restricting blacks’ liberty of speech, freedom of assembly, andlegal rights, and outlawing unemployment, loitering, vagrancy, andinterracial marriages. The codes were one of numerous techniques thatsouthern whites offered to store blacks properly enslaved because that decadesafter the abolition of slavery. Some black codes appeared as earlyas 1865.

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You room watching: The wade davis bill was calculation ineffective whenCarpetbaggers

A nickname for northerners who moved to the south afterthe civil War, called for their tendency to bring their possessionswith lock in huge carpetbags. Though part carpetbaggers migratedto strike that rich, most did so to promote modernization, education,and civil legal rights for previous slaves in the South. Part carpetbaggershad prominent roles in the new Republican state legislatures,much come the dismay of white southerners.

Civil rights Actof 1866

A bill that guarantee blacks the right to sue,serve ~ above juries, testify together witnesses againstwhites, and also enter right into legal contracts. The plot didnot provide blacks the ideal to vote, because most Radical Republicans in 1866 remainedunconvinced that black color suffrage to be a necessity. When an ext Radicalswere elected to Congress the autumn, however, they did considermaking black suffrage a necessity for a state’s readmission intothe Union. The act ultimately led to the Fourteenth Amendment tothe Constitution.

Civil civil liberties Actof 1875

A bill that forbade gyeongju discrimination in all publicplaces. The act to be the Radical Republicans’ critical legislativeeffort to defend the civil liberties of former slaves. Democratsin the home opposed the bill from the outset and also consequently madesure that remained mainly ineffectual.

Civil RightsCases that 1883

A series of can be fried Court situations that countered RadicalRepublican law passed during Reconstruction and also severelyrestricted blacks’ civil liberties. The Court ruled that the CivilRights act of 1875wasunconstitutional, citing the fact that the Fourteenth Amendmentprohibited racial discrimination through the U.S. Government yet notby individuals. The decision was provided to justify racist policiesin both the South and also the North.

Compromise the 1877

A political covenant that make Rutherford B. Hayes president (ratherthan Samuel J. Tilden) in exchange for a finish withdrawal offederal troops from the South, properly ending Reconstruction. Whenneither Hayes nor Tilden won sufficient electoral votes to become president,the election fell into dispute, and Congress passed the ElectoralCount Act come recount well-known votes in three contested states.The unique counting committee determined by simply one poll thatHayes had received more votes in the three states and also was thereforethe next president the the joined States. Democrats accused the Republican-majoritycommittee of bias, for this reason the deteriorate of 1877 wasstruck to settle the politics crisis.

Crédit Mobilier

A fake construction firm formed in the 1860sby corrupt Union Pacific rail officials who hired themselvesas building contractors at inflated prices to gain huge profits. The railroadexecutives likewise bribed dozens that congressmen and also members that UlyssesS. Grant’s cabinet, consisting of Vice president SchuylerColfax. Eventually exposed in 1872,the affair forced many politicians to resign and also became the worstscandal that occurred during Grant’s presidency.

Depression the 1873

An financial depression—caused by bad loans and overspeculation inrailroads and also manufacturing—that rotate the North’s attention awayfrom Reconstruction. Bad whites and also blacks to be hit hardest, andunemployment soared together high together 15 percent.The depression helped southern democracy in their pursuit to regainpolitical prominence in the South and also diminished the reelectionprospects because that Republican candidates, who advocated hard-money policiesand small immediate economic relief. Indeed, Democrats swept thecongressional vote of 1874 andregained the bulk in the residence of Representatives for the firsttime due to the fact that 1856,effectively ending Radical Reconstruction.

Fifteenth revised

A constitution amendment, validated in 1870,that gave all American men the ideal to vote, regardless of raceor wealth. The amendment enfranchised blacks and poor landless whiteswho had actually never been able come vote. Radical Republicans requiredsouthern claims to ratify the amendment in order to it is in readmittedinto the Union. The amendment’s ratification angered plenty of suffragettes whowere fighting for a woman’s ideal to vote.

First ReconstructionAct

A bill, passed by Radical Republicans inCongress in 1867,that treated Southern states as divided territories. Occasionally calledthe army Reconstruction plot or the restoration Act, the very first ReconstructionAct split the southern into five districts, every governed through martiallaw. It to be the very first of a series of harsher bills that the Radicalspassed the year.

Fourteenth amendment

A constitutional amendment, drafted through Radical Republicans in 1866 andratified in 1868,that ensured the the liberties guaranteed to blacks in the CivilRights plot of 1866 couldnot it is in taken away. Favor the Civil legal rights Act, the Fourteenth Amendmentgranted citizenship to all Americans regardless of race (exceptNative Americans, that did no gain full citizenship till the twentiethcentury). The amendment consequently reversed the can be fried Court’s DredScott v. Sanforddecision the 1857.

Freedmen’s Bureau

A government agency established by conference in 1865 todistribute food, supplies, and also confiscated floor to former slaves.Although the bureau’s worth proved questionable due to the fact that of corruptionwithin the organization and also external pressure from southerly whites (includingPresident Andrew Johnson), that successfully developed schoolsfor blacks transparent the South.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

A mystery society created in Tennessee in 1866 toterrorize blacks. Racist whites created the KKK together aviolent reaction to Congress’s i of the Civil RightsAct of 1866.Within a couple of years, the Klan had countless branches in every southernstate. Klansmen donned white sheets and also threatened, beat, and also evenkilled “upstart” blacks. Congress ultimately passed the Ku KluxKlan Act in 1871 tocurb Klan task and gain back order in the South.

Ku Klux Klan Actof 1871

A congressional invoice passed in an answer to prevalent KuKlux Klan violence transparent the South. The Klan had actually beenintimidating, beating, and murdering blacks in every southern statesince 1866, andmany blacks, though freshly enfranchised, avoided the polls out offear for your lives. Although violence spiraled out of controlby the late 1860sand beforehand 1870sbecause state legislatures turned a blind eye, the Ku Klux KlanAct restored order in the South in time for the elections of 1872.

Liberal Republicans

A political party that was created prior come the electionsof 1872 through Republicanswho disagreed through moderate and also Radical Republican ideologies.The Liberal Republicans campaigned top top a communication of governmentreform, lessened government spending, and anti-corruption measures.They additionally wanted to finish military reconstruction in the southern andbring around a swift reconstruction of the Union.

Military ReconstructionAct

See First repair Act.


President Andrew Johnson’s setup for Reconstruction,which lasted indigenous 1865–1867.Johnson, a Democrat native Tennessee, allowed southern claims to reenterthe Union, however only after 10 percentof the voting populace took loyalty oaths come the united States.Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction was similar toLincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, despite Johnson pardonedthousands the high-ranking Confederate officials. Johnson to be alsoa doubter of the Freedmen’s Bureau and also attempted todo away through the program. Presidential Reconstruction ended when RadicalRepublicans took regulate of conference in 1867 in thewake the Johnson’s “Swing roughly the Circle” speeches.

Proclamationof Amnesty and also Reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Reconstructionproposal to an increase support because that the war in the phibìc andpersuade the south to surrender. The proclamation outlined Lincoln’s Ten-PercentPlan, which declared that secessioniststates could be readmitted into the Union ~ 10 percentof voter swore their allegiance to the U.S. Government.

Radical Reconstruction

The duration from 1867–1877 as soon as RadicalRepublicans regulated the home of Representatives and theSenate, advocating for civil liberties and also enfranchisement for formerslaves. The party, well-known for that is harsh plans toward the secessionistSouth, passed gradual legislation like the Civil RightsAct that 1866,the First and 2nd Reconstruction Acts,the Ku Klux Klan Act that 1871,the Civil legal rights Act the 1875,and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and also FifteenthAmendments.

Radical Republicans

A Reconstruction-era political party known for that progressivelegislation and harsh policies toward the South. The Radical Republicanspassed the Civil civil liberties Act that 1866,the First restoration Act, the Second ReconstructionAct, the Ku Klux Klan Act that 1871,the Civil civil liberties Act of 1875,and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.Radical republicans in the House also impeached president AndrewJohnson in 1868 butwere unable to secure enough votes for a conviction in the Senate.

Reconstruction Act

See First repair Act.

Resumption Act

An act that was pass in 1875 toreduce the quantity of currency circulating in the economic situation duringthe Depression that 1873.Although the Resumption action proved valuable in the long run, itsshort-term impacts on many Americans were detrimental. Democratsused these tough times to obtain votes: Samuel J. Tilden endedup receiving an ext popular votes than Rutherford B. Hayes inthe discussed election that 1876.


White Unionist republicans in the southern who participatedin initiatives to modernize and transform the an ar after the CivilWar. Though many scalawags had influential roles inthe brand-new state governments, southerly whites reputed them traitors.

Second ReconstructionAct

An act passed by Radical republic in 1867 thatput commonwealth troops in fee of voter it is registered in the South.


An farming production system in the south throughwhich affluent landowners leased separation, personal, instance plots of floor on plantations towhite and black sharecroppers in exchange for a percentageof the yearly yield of crops. Blacks desired this mechanism to wagelabor because it gave them a sense of independence and also responsibility. Ironically,though, sharecroppers had less autonomy 보다 wage laborers, becausehigh fan bound them come the land, and also most previous slaves workedon plots own by their previous masters. By 1880,most southern blacks had end up being sharecroppers.

Slaughterhouse Cases

A collection of supreme Court cases (involving a new Orleansslaughterhouse) that properly rendered the Fourteenth Amendment useless.The justices ruled the the amendment safeguarded citizens native rightsinfringements just on a commonwealth level, no on a state level. This decisionallowed state legislatures come suspend blacks’ legal and civil rightsas outlined in the Constitution.

“Swing Aroundthe Circle”

The name for a group of speeches in which president AndrewJohnson blamed Radical Republicans for the slownessof Reconstruction and also race riots in the south after the passageof the Civil civil liberties Act the 1866. Johnsontraveled across the country, speaking out versus Republicans, pro-warDemocrats, blacks, and also anyone rather who challenged him. Consequently,his often-abrasive speeches further tarnished the democratic Party’salready scarred reputation and persuaded numerous northerners to voteRepublican in the congressional elections that 1866.

Ten-Percent Plan

Abraham Lincoln’s arrangement for Reconstruction,under i m sorry secessionist states might be readmitted come the Uniononly after ~ 10 percentof their voting population took a loyalty oath come the Union. Lincoln agreedto pardon most Confederates yet made no provision for safeguardingthe rights of previous slaves. Plenty of Radical Republicans believedhis arrangement was also lenient.

Tenure of Office act

A bill that Congress passed during Andrew Johnson’spresidency that compelled Johnson come consult Congress prior to dismissingany congressionally appointed government official. As soon as Johnsonignored Congress and fired Secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton,the Radical republicans in the home impeached Johnsonon the grounds the he had actually violated the Tenure the Office Act. AlthoughJohnson technically did violate the act, the Radicalsimpeached him primarily out the revenge, angry the he had excludedCongress from the restoration process. The Senate later on acquittedJohnson, therefore he to be not removed from office.

Thirteenth Amendment

A constitution amendment, ratified in 1865,that abolished slavery in the united States. Southern says wererequired come acknowledge and also ratify the amendment prior to they werereadmitted to the Union.

United Statesv. Cruikshank

An 1876 SupremeCourt instance that severely limited Congress’s ability to enforcethe Ku Klux Klan plot of 1871.The Court ruled that just states, no the U.S. Government, had theright to prosecute Klansmen under the law. Without the risk offederal prosecution, the Ku Klux Klan and also other racistwhites had totally free reign to terrorize blacks transparent the South.

Wade-Davis Bill

An 1864 billthat regulation that southern states might reenter the Union onlyafter 50 percent oftheir voters pledged allegiance to the joined States. RadicalRepublicans passed the invoice in response to AbrahamLincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, which lock believedwas also lenient. Lincoln eventually pocket-vetoed thebill, so that did not come right into effect. The Wade-Davis bill was first of countless clashes in between the White House and Congress for controlover the restoration process.

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Whiskey Ring

A team of federal government officials who embezzled millionsof dollars of excise tax revenue native the U.S. Treasury. The WhiskeyRing scandal damaged chairman Ulysses S. Grant’sreputation and also affected main figures in the White House—the president’sown an individual secretary to be indicted in the conspiracy however was acquittedafter give testified to his innocence.