On a tiny scale, every lightning is essentially the very same - a channel of ionized air carrying electric current in between two differing areas of charge. The polarity of a lightning channel end can influence the way it propagates and branches in room and time, however in the end, it"s every an electrostatic discharge - a "spark" in its basic sense. The small "static" sparks in between your finger and also a doorknob are, technically speaking, the very same basic process at work, just on a smaller scale. The "types" of lightning we"ll comment on here refer an ext to exactly how a discharge appears to an observer and also the polarity of these visible sections.This net site is made feasible by assistance from CIS Internet.
Cloud-to-Ground Lightning - NegativeA lightning discharge between cloud and also ground whereby the an adverse end of an in-cloud bidirectional leader descends to the soil via a downward-moving, negatively-charged stepped leader. Abbreviated "-CG". An unfavorable CGs are much more common than optimistic CGs. Most of the lightning you deserve to see highlight the ground in a storm is that the an unfavorable cloud-to-ground variety. An unfavorable cloud-to-ground lightning strikes deserve to be determined visually and also in photographs by their distinctive downward branching (aside native the section of the channel really close come the ground, whereby upward leaders can be branched upward). Negative CGs typically consist of multiple "return strokes", which are additional pulses of present that illuminate the channel again and also again. The very first return stroke of a an adverse CG is normally the only branched one - the branches usually carry out not illuminate again in subsequent return strokes.ARTICLE: thorough look at cloud-to-ground lightningPHOTOS: Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Gallery
Positive Cloud-to-Ground Lightning
Cloud-to-Ground Lightning - PositiveA lightning discharge between cloud and also ground whereby the positive finish of an in-cloud bidirectional leader descends come the floor via a positively-charged leader. Abbreviated "+CG". Positive CGs space less typical than an unfavorable CGs, and usually are associated with supercell thunderstorms and trailing stratiform precipitation areas behind squall lines. Many positive cloud-to-ground lightning strikes deserve to be established visually and also in photographs by their distinctive lack of branching, particularly close come the soil (positive CGs periodically will have actually branching at higher altitudes, however rarely close to the ground). Positive CGs typically consist of just one return stroke, i m sorry is typically really bright and also intense relative to various other lightning task in a storm. The is common for photographs of positive CGs to it is in overexposed unless the photographer has actually stopped the lens under significantly. Thunder indigenous a positive CG is typically very loud, and many times sounds favor a series of deep, low-frequency sonic booms.Sprites (see below) space usually connected with the much more intense positive CGs.ARTICLE: detailed look in ~ cloud-to-ground lightningPHOTOS: Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Gallery
Ground-to-Cloud LightningGround-to-Cloud lightning (sometimes called Upward-moving lightning) is a discharge in between cloud and also ground initiated by an upward-moving leader originating from things on the ground. Ground-to-Cloud lightning strikes are common on tall towers and also skyscrapers. GC lightning can additionally be either optimistic or negative in polarity, however the vast majority are positive. Lightning that demonstrates upward branching is a clear indication the a ground-to-cloud flash, though part upward-moving lightning is branchless listed below cloud base.ARTICLE: Article: comprehensive look in ~ ground-to-cloud lightningPHOTOS: Ground-to-Cloud (Upward) Lightning Gallery
Intracloud LightningThe many common form of discharge - lightning inside a solitary storm cloud wherein both end of the bidirectional leader stay totally in the storm cloud. Intracloud lightning is sometimes called sheet lightning because it lamp up the skies with a "sheet" that light. Every or parts of the actual channel may be obscured within the cloud, and may or may not be clearly shows to an observer on the ground. No to be confused with cloud-to-cloud lightning.PHOTOS: Intracloud/Anvil Crawler Lightning Gallery
Anvil Crawlers are horizontal, tree-like, in-cloud lightning discharges whos leader propagation is resolvable to the human eye. In other words, the anvil crawler"s movement is slow enough (compared to most lightning discharges) the a person observer or normal-speed video clip camera deserve to see its rapid motion across the sky. This type of lightning (sometimes referred to as "crawlers" or "rocket lightning") regularly cover very big distances, causing vast, spectacular sky-filling discharges.Anvil crawlers are often an extremely high-altitude events, and also as such typically result in soft, rojo thunder because of their good distance from the observer. The name "anvil crawler" is obtained from the clearly shows "crawling" motion and also their tendency to appear along the underside the the anvil parts of a thunderstorm. Anvil crawlers have the right to either happen independently totally within the cloud, or in link with a cloud-to-ground discharge. Click the images below to enlarge
Bolt indigenous the BlueA bolt indigenous the blue (sometimes called "anvil lightning" or "anvil-to-ground" lightning) is a name provided to a cloud-to-ground lightning discharge that strikes much away native its parental thunderstorm. A "bolt indigenous the blue" happens once one finish of a farming bidirectional leader (usually the an adverse end) propagates exterior of the cloud, far away indigenous it, then turns towards the ground. Because of the final ground strike suggest being a significant distance native the storm (sometimes up to ten miles away), these lightning occasions can happen at areas with clean "blue" skies overhead - for this reason the name.Contrary to myth, many "bolts native the blue" are negatively-charged, however positively-charged ones do happen on rare occasion.PHOTO: View larger image
Cloud-to-Air LightningReferring to a discharge (or a portion of a discharge) jumping from a cloud into clear air. Technically speaking, every cloud-to-ground lightning strikes save "cloud-to-air" contents in the many branches that extend away from the key channel and also terminate abruptly in mid-air. However, the many visually dramatic instances of cloud-to-air lightning occur when a long, shining lightning channel jumps the end of the next of a cumulonimbus cloud and terminates in the clear air neighboring the storm. Such events are in reality failed "bolts indigenous the blue" where the discharge occasion terminates early prior to the leader have the right to reach the ground.PHOTO: View bigger image
Bead LightningBead Lightning is a name offered to the decaying stage of a lightning channel in which the luminosity that the channel division up right into segments. Practically every lightning discharge will exhibit "beading" as the channel cools immediately after a return stroke, periodically referred to as the lightning"s "bead-out" stage. "Bead lightning" is more properly a stage of a common lightning discharge fairly than a form of lightning in itself.Beading the a lightning channel is typically a small-scale feature, and therefore is often only evident when the observer/camera is close come the lightning.PHOTOS: Bead Lightning Gallery
Ribbon LightningRibbon Lightning refers to the visual appearance the a photographed lightning flash"s separation, personal, instance return strokes being separated by visible gaps top top the last exposure. This is typically caused by wind punch the lightning channel sideways throughout the exposure. The more powerful the wind and also closer the lightning strike, the more horizontal displacement will exist on the recorded image.Camera movement during the record of a lightning photograph can also an outcome in the same effect:
Sheet LightningSheet Lightning is a term offered to define clouds illuminated by a lightning discharge wherein the really lightning channel is either inside the clouds or listed below the horizon (not visible to the observer). Paper lightning is, just speaking, plain lightning (cloud-to-ground, intracloud, etc) the is covert by clouds or terrain as well as the flash of light it produces.
Sprites and JetsElectrical discharges that occur high over active thunderstorms. Sprites show up as vertical red columns. They have been discovered to take place in conjunction with and/or as a reaction to hopeful cloud-to-ground lightning discharges. They space swift and faintly lit, do them practically invisible come the naked eye and challenging to photograph. This phenomena are finest viewed in ~ long ranges from large thunderstorm complexes, at least 100 miles away.PHOTO: View bigger image
Other lightning types
Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning: somewhat rare form of discharge in between two or more fully separate storm clouds. Not to be confused with usual intracloud lightning occuring within one storm cloud.Ball Lightning: ball Lightning is a rarely phenomenon described as a floating, illuminated round that occurs throughout thunderstorms. It might move fast, sluggish or remain stationary, it might be quiet or produce a hissing or crackling noise, it may pass v windows, critical from seconds to minutes, and also disappear progressively or unexpectedly either quiet or with a according to bang. No critical photographs have ever before been obtained of ball lightning no one has any plausible scientific explanation been uncovered for it to occur. Therefore, its presence remains questionable and is currently given the same scientific credibility together UFOs. Furthermore, many ball lightning reports have actually been discovered to it is in nothing much more than power line arcs and other unrelated events.
Read an ext on ball lightning myths >Heat Lightning: "Heat lightning" is simply ordinary lightning native faraway thunderstorms listed below the horizon. On a clear night, lightning flicker from a distant storm deserve to be seen numerous miles away. Heat lightning got its name due to the fact that it is regularly seen on warm summer nights, a time when thunderstorms are common. "Heat lightning" often is beforehand warning sign that storms space approaching, since the storm creating the lightning you"re seeing might be moving your way.Staccato Lightning: A cloud-to-ground lightning speed that is composed of only one return stroke.This animation depicts several varieties of lightning. Deserve to you determine them?