What is the difference in between a host and an finish system? List number of different varieties of end systems. Is a internet server an finish system?
A organize is an finish system, and also vice versa.Types of finish systems: desktops, laptops, smartphones, tablets, automobiles, various sensors, etc.Yes, a net server is an end system.

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The indigenous protocol is regularly used to define diplomatic relations. Just how does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol?
A protocol is defined as the rule of etiquette for heads of state, for instance in what bespeak diplomats attend to representatives of various other nations regularly in order of decreasing importance and also power.
Standards are necessary for protocols so that both communicating computers are sending and interpreting data in the exact same order and manner.
List six access technologies. Classify every one as residence access, enterprise access, or wide area network access.
DSL(Digital Subscriber Line) - home AccessCable - residence AccessFTTH(Fiber come the Home) - home AccessDial-Up - residence AccessSatellite - home AccessEthernet - companies (and Home) AccessWiFi - enterprise (and Home) Access3G - broad Area Network AccessLTE - broad Area Network Access
Is HFC infection rate specialized or shared among users? space collisions possible in a downstream HFC channel? Why or why not?
HFC (cable internet) transmission rate is shared among users. There room no collisions in the downstream channel because all packets come indigenous a single source, the head end.
List the available residential access technologies in her city. For each kind of access, provide the advertised downstream rate, upstream rate, and also monthly price.
In many American cities, the existing possibilities include: dial-up; DSL; cable modem; fiber- to-the-home.HFC - 300 mbps - $65 - 100 mbps - $65 - 2 mbps - $15
Users - 100 mbpsServers - 1 gbps or even 10 gbpsEthernet LANs have transmission prices of 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps and also 10 Gbps.
Today, Ethernet most frequently runs end twisted-pair copper wire. It also can run over fibers optic links.
Dial-up modems, HFC, DSL and FTTH space all supplied for residential access. Because that each the these accessibility technologies, administer a selection of infection rates and comment on even if it is the transmission price is mutual or dedicated.
Dial increase modems: approximately 56 Kbps, bandwidth is dedicated; ADSL: as much as 24 Mbps downstream and 2.5 Mbps upstream, bandwidth is dedicated; HFC, prices up to 42.8 Mbps and upstream prices of as much as 30.7 Mbps, bandwidth is shared. FTTH: 2-10Mbps upload; 10-20 Mbps download; bandwidth is not shared.
There room two renowned wireless Internet accessibility technologies today: a) Wifi (802.11) In a wireless LAN, wireless users transmit/receive packets to/from an base station (i.e., wireless accessibility point) in ~ a radius of few tens the meters. The base terminal is typically connected to the wired Internet and thus serves to attach wireless customers to the wired network.b) 3G and also 4G wide-area wireless accessibility networks. In these systems, packets space transmitted over the same wireless infrastructure used because that cellular telephony, with the basic station thus being controlled by a telecommunications provider. This provides wireless access to users within a radius of 10s of kilometers that the basic station. .
Suppose there is specifically one packet switch in between a sending host and also a receiving host. The transmission rates between the sending out host and the switch and between the switch and the receiving hold are R1 and R2, respectively. Assuming the the switch provides store-and-forward packet switching, what is the total end-to-end delay to send a packet of length L? (Ignore queuing, propagation delay, and processing delay.)
d(end to end) = N(L/R)d - delayN - variety of linksL - number of bits in packetsR - rated(end to end) = (L/R1)+(L/R2)
What advantage does a circuit-switched network have over a packet-switched network? What benefits does TDM(Time division Multiplexing) have over FDM(Frequency department Multiplexing) in a circuit-switched network?
A circuit-switched network can guarantee a particular amount of end-to-end bandwidth because that the expression of a call. Most packet-switched networks this particular day (including the Internet) can not make any type of end-to-end assures for bandwidth.In a packet switched network, the packets from different sources flowing on a attach do not follow any type of fixed, pre-defined pattern. In TDM circuit switching, each host gets the very same slot in a revolving TDM frame.
Suppose customers share a 2 Mbps link. Also suppose each user transmits consistently at 1 Mbps as soon as transmitting, however each user transmits just 20 percent that the time. (See the discussion of statistical multiplexing in ar 1.3.)a. Once circuit switching is used, how numerous users have the right to be supported? b. For the remainder that this problem, mean packet switching is used. Why will certainly there be essentially no queuing delay before the connect if two or fewer users transmit in ~ the same time? Why will certainly there it is in a queuing hold-up if 3 users transmit at the exact same time? c. Find the probability the a provided user is transmitting. D. Suppose now there space three users. Discover the probability that at any kind of given time, all three users room transmitting simultaneously. Find the portion of time throughout which the queue grows.
a) two users have the right to be supported due to the fact that each user requires half of the bandwidthb)Since each user calls for 1Mbps when transmitting, if two or fewer individuals transmit simultaneously, a preferably of 2Mbps will be required. Since the accessible bandwidth that the shared attach is 2Mbps, there will certainly be no queuing delay before the link. Whereas, if 3 users transmit simultaneously, the bandwidth required will be 3Mbps i beg your pardon is an ext than the available bandwidth that the shared link. In this case, there will be queuing delay before the link. C) Probability that a given user is transmitting = 0.2 d) Probability the all three users are transmitting all at once = 3 33 1 3 3 pp = (0.2)3 = 0.008. Since the queue grows as soon as all the users space transmitting, the fraction of time during which the queue grows (which is equal to the probability the all 3 users are transmitting simultaneously) is 0.008.
Why will two ISPs in ~ the same level the the hierarchy frequently peer through each other? how does an ISP earn money?
If the two ISPs carry out not peer v each other, then once they send web traffic to each various other they have to send the traffic v a provider ISP (intermediary), to which they have to pay for transporting the traffic. By peering v each other directly, the two ISPs deserve to reduce their payments to their provider ISPs. An web Exchange points (IXP) (typically in a standalone structure with its very own switches) is a meeting point where many ISPs can affix and/or peer together. One ISP earns the money through charging each of the the ISPs that connect to the IXP a relatively small fee, which might depend top top the lot of traffic sent out to or obtained from the IXP.
Some content companies have developed their very own networks. Explain Google"s network. What motivates content carriers to produce these networks?
Google"s private network connects with each other all the data centers, large and small. Traffic between the Google data centers passes end its exclusive network rather than over the public Internet. Countless of this data centers are situated in, or nearby to, lower tier ISPs. Therefore, once Google delivers contents to a user, it regularly can bypass greater tier ISPs. What motivates content providers to develop these networks? First, the content provider has much more control over the user experience, because it has to use few intermediary ISPs. Second, it have the right to save money by sending less traffic right into provider networks. Third, if ISPs decide to charge more money to highly profitable content providers (in countries where network neutrality doesn"t apply), the content providers deserve to avoid these extra payments.
Consider sending a packet indigenous a resource host come a location host end a fixed route. List the delay components in the end-to-end delay. I beg your pardon of this delays are constant and which space variable?
The delay components are handling delays, transmission delays, propagation delays, and also queuing delays. All of these delays room fixed, except for the queuing delays, which room variable
Visit the transmission Versus Propagation delay applet in ~ the companion internet site. Among the rates, propagation delay, and packet sizes available, find a mix for which the sender finishes transmitting before the very first bit the the packet will the receiver. Uncover another combination for i m sorry the first bit of the packet will the receiver before the sender finishes transmitting.
How long does it take a packet of length 1,000 bytes come propagate over a connect of distance 2,500 km, propagation rate 2.5 • 108 m/s, and also transmission rate 2 Mbps? more generally, how long does it take a packet of length L to propagate over a connect of street d, propagation rate s, and also transmission price R bps? walk this hold-up depend top top packet length? walk this hold-up depend on transmission rate?
Suppose host A wants to send a large paper to host B. The route from host A to organize B has actually three links, of prices R1 = 500 kbps, R2 = 2 Mbps, and also R3 = 1 Mbps. A. Assuming no various other traffic in the network, what is the throughput for the record transfer? b. Expect the paper is 4 million bytes. Separating the record size by the throughput, roughly how lengthy will it take to transfer the paper to organize B? c. Repeat (a) and also (b), yet now v R2 decreased to 100 kbps.
Suppose finish system A wants to send a large document to finish system B. At a very high level, describe how end system A create packets native the file. When one of this packets come to a packet switch, what info in the packet walk the switch use to recognize the link onto which the packet is forwarded? Why is packet switching in the internet analogous come driving from one city to another and asking directions follow me the way?
End mechanism A division the large document into chunks. The adds header to each chunk, thereby generating multiple packets native the file. The header in every packet consists of the IP resolve of the destination (end mechanism B). The packet switch provides the location IP address in the packet to identify the outgoing link. Asking which road to take it is analogous to a packet asking which outgoing link it should be forwarded on, offered the packet"s destination address.
Visit the Queuing and also Loss applet at the companion internet site. What is the maximum emissions rate and the minimum infection rate? through those rates, what is the website traffic intensity? run the applet v these rates and deter- mine how long that takes for packet loss come occur. Then repeat the experiment a 2nd time and also determine again exactly how long it takes because that packet loss to occur. Space the values different? Why or why not?
The best emission price is 500 packets/sec and the best transmission rate is 350 packets/sec. The matching traffic intensity is 500/350 =1.43 > 1. Loss will at some point occur because that each experiment; however the time once loss very first occurs will certainly be various from one experiment come the next because of the randomness in the emissions process.
List 5 tasks that a layer have the right to perform. Is it feasible that one (or more) of these tasks could be perform by 2 (or more) layers?
Five generic work are error control, circulation control, segmentation and reassembly, multiplexing, and connection setup. Yes, these tasks deserve to be copied at different layers. For example, error manage is often listed at an ext than one layer.
What space the 5 layers in the web protocol stack? What are the major responsibilities of each of these layers?
The 5 layers in the internet protocol stack room - from peak to bottom - the applications layer, the move layer, the network layer, the link layer, and the physical layer. The primary responsibilities are outlined in section 1.5.1.
What is one application-layer message? A transport-layer segment? A network- layer datagram? A link-layer frame?
Application-layer message: data which an application desires to send and passed top top the deliver layer; transport-layer segment: created by the transport layer and also encapsulates application-layer article with deliver layer header; network-layer datagram: encapsulates transport-layer segment v a network-layer header; link-layer frame: encapsulates network- layer datagram through a link-layer header.
Which great in the net protocol ridge does a router process? i beg your pardon layers go a link-layer switch process? i beg your pardon layers walk a organize process?
Routers process network, link and also physical great (layers 1 v 3). (This is a little bit of a white lie, as modern routers sometimes act together firewalls or caching components, and process Transport layer together well.) attach layer switches process link and physical class (layers 1 through2). Hosts procedure all five layers.
A virus needs some kind of user interaction to infect a system.A worm top top the various other hand, requires no interaction. Rather a hacker might send a item of malware come a vulnerable network application, and also have the application run it, producing the worm. A) Virus requires some type of human interaction come spread. Classic example: E-mail viruses. B) Worms No user replication needed. Worm in infected organize scans IP addresses and port numbers, feather for fragile processes to infect
Creation of a botnet requires an attacker to uncover vulnerability in some application or mechanism (e.g. Exploiting the buffer overflow vulnerability that can exist in an application). After ~ finding the vulnerability, the attacker needs to scan for hosts that room vulnerable. The target is basically to compromise a collection of systems by exploiting that specific vulnerability. Any kind of system that is component of the botnet can immediately scan its environment and also propagate through exploiting the vulnerability. An important property of together botnets is the the originator of the botnet have the right to remotely control and also issue regulates to every the nodes in the botnet. Hence, that becomes feasible for the attacker to concern a command to every the nodes, that target a solitary node (for example, all nodes in the botnet could be commanded through the attacker to send a TCP SYN blog post to the target, which might an outcome in a TCP SYN flood strike at the target).
Suppose Alice and Bob are sending out packets to each other over a computer system network. Suppose Trudy positions herself in the network so the she can capture all the packets sent by Alice and send whatever she wants to Bob; she can also capture all the packets sent by Bob and send whatever she desires to Alice. List few of the malicious things Trudy can do indigenous this position.

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Trudy have the right to pretend to it is in Bob to Alice (and vice-versa) and partially or fully modify the message(s) being sent out from Bob come Alice. For example, she can easily readjust the expression "Alice, ns owe girlfriend $1000" come "Alice, ns owe you $10,000". Furthermore, Trudy can even drop the packets that room being sent out by Bob to Alice (and vise-versa), even if the packets indigenous Bob to Alice are encrypted.
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