Define bone, cartilage and also the skeleton systemList and describe the features of the bones system

Bone, or osseous tissue, is a hard, dense connective organization that creates most of the adult skeleton, the support framework of the body. In the locations of the skeleton whereby bones move (for example, the ribcage and joints), cartilage, a semi-rigid type of connective tissue, provides flexibility and smooth surfaces because that movement. The skeletal system is the body device composed the bones and also cartilage and also performs the following an essential functions for the person body:

supports the bodyfacilitates movementprotects interior organsproduces blood cellsstores and also releases minerals and fat

Support, Movement and Protection

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Figure 10.1.1. Bones support movement.

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bones act together levers as soon as muscles expectations a joint and contract. (credit: Benjamin J. DeLong).

The most evident functions the the skeletal mechanism are the gross functions—those visible by observation. Just by looking in ~ a person, you can see just how the skeleton support, facilitate movement, and also protect the human body.

Just as the stole beams that a building carry out a frame to assistance its weight, the bones and also cartilage of your skeletal system compose the scaffold that supports the rest of your body. Without the skeleton system, you would certainly be a limp fixed of organs, muscle, and also skin.

Bones likewise facilitate motion by serving as points of attachment for her muscles. While some bones just serve together a assistance for the muscles, others also transmit the forces produced when her muscles contract. Native a mechanical suggest of view, skeletal act together levers and joints serve as fulcrums (Figure 10.1.1). Uneven a muscle spans a joint and contracts, a bone is no going to move.

Bones additionally protect inner organs native injury by extending or surrounding them. Her ribs safeguard your lungs and also heart, the skeletal of your vertebral obelisk (spine) safeguard your spinal cord, and the skeletal of her cranium (skull) defend your mind (Figure 10.1.2).

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Figure 10.1.2. Bones safeguard brain. The cranium surrounds and protects the mind from non-traumatic injury.

Career Connection

Orthopaedist

An orthopaedist is a medical professional who specialises in diagnosing and treating disorders and injuries regarded the musculoskeletal system. Part orthopaedic difficulties can be treated with medications, exercises, braces, and other devices, yet others might be finest treated with surgical treatment (Figure 10.1.3).

While the origin of the word “orthopaedics” (ortho- = “straight”; paed- = “child”), literally way “straightening of the child,” orthopaedists have the right to have patient who selection from paediatric to geriatric. In recent years, orthopaedists have even performed prenatal surgical treatment to correct spina bifida, a congenital defect in which the neural canal in the spine that the foetus stops working to close completely during embryologic development.

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Figure 10.1.3. Eight brace. one orthopaedist will periodically prescribe the usage of a brace that reinforces the basic bone framework it is being used to support. (credit: Juhan Sonin).

Orthopaedists typically treat bone and joint injuries however they likewise treat various other bone conditions including curvature that the spine. Lateral curvatures (scoliosis) deserve to be severe sufficient to on slide under the shoulder tongue (scapula) forcing it up together a hump. Spinal curvatures can additionally be too much dorsoventrally (kyphosis) bring about a hunch earlier and thoracic compression. This curvatures often appear in preteens together the result of poor posture, abnormal growth, or indeterminate causes. Mostly, lock are readily treated by orthopaedists. As world age, built up spinal tower injuries and diseases favor osteoporosis can also lead to curvatures of the spine, therefore the stooping you sometimes see in the elderly.

Some orthopaedists sub-specialise in sports medicine, i beg your pardon addresses both straightforward injuries, such together a sprained ankle, and facility injuries, such together a take it rotator cuff in the shoulder. Therapy can range from exercise to surgery. The Australian Orthopaedic association (AOA) is a not-for-profit organization that gives specialist education and also training, ensuring high conventional of orthopaedic care, and is a top authority human body who actively supports scientific research and orthopaedic humanitarian initiatives in Australia and worldwide.


Mineral Storage, energy Storage and also Haematopoiesis

On a metabolic level, bone tissue performs several an important functions. For one, the bone matrix acts together a reservoir for numerous minerals necessary to the work of the body, especially calcium and also phosphorus. This minerals, included into bone tissue, have the right to be released earlier into the bloodstream to preserve levels essential to support physiological processes. Calcium ions, for example, are necessary for muscle contractions and controlling the flow of other ions involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Bone also serves together a website for fat storage and also blood cell production. The softer connective organization that filling the internal of most bone is described as bone marrow (Figure 10.1.4). There are two varieties of bone marrow: yellow marrow and also red marrow. Yellow marrow consists of adipose tissue; the triglythrade stored in the adipocytes that the tissue deserve to serve together a source of energy. Red marrow is where haematopoiesis—the manufacturing of blood cells—takes place. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets space all developed in the red marrow.

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Figure 10.1.4. Head of femur mirroring red and yellow marrow. The head that the femur includes both yellow and also red marrow. Yellow marrow shop fat. Red marrow is responsible for haematopoiesis. (credit: modification of occupational by “stevenfruitsmaak”/Wikimedia Commons).

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The significant functions that the bones room body support, facilitation that movement, security of interior organs, warehouse of minerals and also fat and haematopoiesis. Together, the muscular system and skeletal system are known as the musculoskeletal system.