You are watching: What class of elements includes all of the elements that are gases at room temperature?

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(a) solid O2 has a solved volume and shape, and also the molecules are packed tightly together. (b) liquid O2 conforms come the shape of that container but has a fixed volume; that contains relatively densely packed molecules. (c) gas O2 filling its container completely—regardless that the container’s dimension or shape—and is composed of widely separated molecules.


The state that a given substance depends strongly ~ above conditions. Because that example, H2O is generally found in all three states: solid ice, liquid water, and water vapor (its gas form). Under most conditions, we encounter water as the liquid that is crucial for life; we drink it, chef with it, and bathe in it. When the temperature is cold sufficient to transform the liquid to ice, we deserve to ski or skate on it, pack it right into a snowball or snow cone, and even build dwellings with it. Water vaporThe difference between a gas and a vapor is subtle: the term vapor refers to the gaseous form of a substance that is a liquid or a hard under normal conditions (25°C, 1.0 atm). Nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) are for this reason referred to together gases, yet gaseous water in the environment is called water vapor. Is a component of the air us breathe, and also it is created whenever we warmth water for cooking food or make coffee or tea. Water vapor in ~ temperatures higher than 100°C is called steam. Steam is provided to drive large machinery, consisting of turbines that generate electricity. The nature of the three claims of water are summarized in Table 10.1.1


Table 10.1.1 nature of Water at 1.0 atm

Temperature State thickness (g/cm3)
≤0°C solid (ice) 0.9167 (at 0.0°C)
0°C–100°C liquid (water) 0.9997 (at 4.0°C)
≥100°C vapor (steam) 0.005476 (at 127°C)

The geometric structure and also the physical and yellowcomic.comical properties of atoms, ions, and also molecules usually perform not depend on their physical state; the individual water molecule in ice, liquid water, and also steam, because that example, space all identical. In contrast, the macroscopic properties of a substance count strongly ~ above its physics state, i m sorry is established by intermolecular forces and also conditions such as temperature and pressure.

Figure 10.1.2 reflects the areas in the periodic table of those aspects that are commonly found in the gaseous, liquid, and also solid states. Other than for hydrogen, the elements that occur naturally together gases room on the right side that the routine table. That these, all the noble gases (group 18) are monatomic gases, conversely, the other gaseous elements are diatomic molecules (H2, N2, O2, F2, and also Cl2). Oxygen can also kind a second allotrope, the extremely reactive triatomic molecule ozone (O3), which is additionally a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and also mercury (Hg) room liquids under normal problems (25°C and 1.0 atm, commonly referred to together “room temperature and also pressure”). Gallium (Ga), which melts at only 29.76°C, deserve to be convert to a liquid simply by holding a container of it in your hand or maintaining it in a non-air-conditioned room ~ above a warm summer day. The rest of the aspects are every solids under normal conditions.


Figure 10.1.2 facets That take place Naturally together Gases, Liquids, and Solids at 25°C and 1 atm

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