Japanese particles か (ka) and も (mo) can integrate with the concern words to type other indigenous in Japanese.
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So far you have already known that the question words for "what", "who" and also "where" in Japanese space なに (nani), だれ (dare) and also どこ (doko) respectively.
If you include the Japanese fragment か (ka) come なに (nani), だれ (dare) and also どこ (doko), the Japanese words for "something" - なにか (nanika), "someone" - だれか (dareka) and also "somewhere" - どこか (dokoka) are formed respectively.
When girlfriend are developing sentences with the over 3 words, some of them require fragment while some carry out not require. The rule is together follow...
What walk the above rule mean? Let"s usage some examples to show.
"Something" - なにか (nanika)
Usually when you are asking something using the question word なに (nani)...Question: あなたはなに を のみますか。anata wa nani wo nomimasu kaMeaning: What are you going to drink? (The speaker currently know the the listener wants to drink something)Answer: わたしはコーヒー を のみます。watashi wa ko-hi- wo nomimasuMeaning: I will certainly drink coffee.
However if you room to use "something" なにか (nanika) in the above question...Question: あなたは なにか のみますか。anata wa nanika nomimasu kaMeaning: are you going come drink something? (The speaker does not recognize if the listener desires to drink or not)Answer: はい、 わたしはなにかのみます。 コーヒーを のみます。hai, watashi wa nanika nomimasu. Ko-hi- wo nomimasuMeaning: Yes, I will certainly drink something. I will certainly drink coffee.
You can see that once using words "something" なにか (nanika) in the above question, you execute not require the Japanese bit を (wo), and also the concern becomes a Yes/No inquiry (question needs you come answer yes or no).
When comment the over question, you can omit the part on "I will drink something". You just need come say what you space going to drink.
"Someone" - だれか (dareka)
Similarly if you space asking something using the concern word だれ (dare)...Question: きょうしつにだれ が いますか。kyoushitsu ni dare ga imasu kaMeaning: that exist in the classroom? (The speaker already knows that someone is in the classroom)Answer: きょうしつにせんせい が います。kyoushitsu ni sensei ga imasuMeaning: Teacher is in the classroom.
However if you are to use "someone" だれか (dareka) in the above question...Question: きょうしつに だれか いますか。kyoushitsu ni dareka imasu kaMeaning: Is there someone in the classroom? (The speaker does not know if over there is who in the classroom or not)Answer: はい、きょうしつにせんせい が います。hai, kyoushitsu ni sensei ga imasuMeaning: Yes, teacher is in the classroom.
When you room using words "someone" だれか (dareka) in the above question, you carry out not require the Japanese bit が (ga), and the inquiry becomes a Yes/No question.
"Somewhere" - どこか (dokoka)
If you space asking something using the concern word どこ (doko)...Question: あしたどこ へ いきますか。ashita doko e ikimasu kaMeaning: Where are you walking tomorrow? (The speaker already know that the listener is going somewhere)Answer: あしたがっこう へ いきます。ashita gakkou e ikimasuMeaning: i am walk to institution tomorrow.
However if you room to use "somewhere" どこか (dokoka) in the over question...Question: あした どこか へ いきますか。ashita dokoka e ikimasu kaMeaning: are you going somewhere tomorrow? (The speak does not recognize if the listener is going out or not)Answer: はい、あしたがっこう へ いきます。hai, ashita gakkou e ikimasuMeaning: Yes, i am walking to institution tomorrow.
As you deserve to see, various from "something" and "someone", also when you space using "somewhere" どこか (dokoka) in the above question, friend still require the Japanese particle へ (e), and also the concern has end up being a Yes/No inquiry too.
All the over examples have shown whether Japanese particles are required when you are forming sentences making use of the indigenous "something", "something" and also "somewhere".
Question Words v Japanese bit も (mo)
Instead of adding the bit か (ka), if you include the particle も (mo) come なに (nani), だれ (dare) and どこ (doko), the Japanese words because that "nothing" - なにも (nanimo), "nobody" - だれも (daremo) and also "nowhere" - どこPも (doko ns mo) are developed respectively.
When you are creating sentences through the over 3 words, few of them require bit while some do not.
And all these 3 words need to be used along with the negative type sentences. The dominance is together follow...
Question indigenous + も + an adverse form
|なにも + an unfavorable form||nothing||No|
|だれも + an unfavorable form||nobody||No|
|どこ (Particle) も + an adverse form||nowhere||Yes|
However, if どこも (dokomo) is provided (without the particle) in addition to positive kind sentence, it deserve to mean the opposite - "everywhere" or "anywhere". The ascendancy is...
Again let"s use some instances to display what the above rules mean...
"Nothing" - なにも (nanimo)Question: あなたは なにか のみますか。anata wa nanika nomimasu kaMeaning: are you going to drink something?Answer: いいえ、<わたしは> なにも のみません。iie,
As you have the right to see native the above answer, as soon as you space using words "nothing" なにも (nanimo), you do not require the Japanese bit を (wo) and the sentence should be in an adverse form.
The square bracket < > shows that the words within the bracket space optional.
"Nobody" - だれも (daremo)
When you are using words "nobody" だれも (daremo)...Question: きょうしつに だれか いますか。kyoushitsu ni dareka imasu kaMeaning: Is there someone in the classroom?Answer: いいえ、<きょうしつ には> だれも いません。iie,
When you room using words "nobody" だれも (daremo) in the above answer, you execute not require the Japanese particle が (ga) and the sentence should be in an adverse form.
"Nowhere" - どこ + bit + も (doko particle mo)
When you room using words "nowhere" どこ + bit + も (doko fragment mo)...Question: あした どこか へいきますか。ashita dokoka e ikimasu kaMeaning: room you going somewhere tomorrow?Answer: いいえ、<あした は> どこへも いきません。iie,
As you deserve to see native the over answer, when you room using words "nowhere" どこ + bit + も (doko fragment mo), you still require the Japanese bit へ (e) (in this case), and the sentence have to be in an adverse form.
"Everywhere" - どこも (dokomo) + optimistic form
Note the どこも (dokomo) deserve to mean "everywhere" or "anywhere" if it"s used together with positive type sentence.どこも こんでいます。dokomo konde imasuMeaning: everywhere is crowded.ホテルは どこも よやくでいっぱいです。hoteru wa dokomo yoyaku de ippai desuMeaning: The hotels were every booked.
If you desire to know much more about Japanese particles, ns recommend you get one of these publications on particles.
Lesson 11: Particles.
Lesson 14: Particles change in an unfavorable Answers.
Lesson 16: particles to and also de.
Lesson 24: particles wa and ga.
Lesson 27: bit to for Quotation.
Intermediate lesson 14: bit ga for Introduction.
Intermediate class 18: bit de with an ext functions.
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