A creepmeter is an instrument that monitors surface displacement of an energetic fault. The Creepmeter selection in N-Chile, i beg your pardon is component of the integrated Plate border Observatory in Chile (IPOC) is designed come record continuous or episodic displacement as well as triggered displacement events along the trench parallel Atacama error System. The key goal of the research is to record a continuous time-series that displacement throughout the target faults to recognize the system of strain accumulation along crustal faults situated in the Chilean Forearc over a highly active subduction ar interface. The an initial pilot instrument was set up in 2007, ~ the Tocopilla earthquake ~ above the Mejillones Peninsula. This particular day 11 instruments are consistently monitoring displacement build-up across the 4 target faults, 3 of the tools are collocated through broadband seismometers because that signal correlation. Among the instruments is designated as recommendation station which is not installed across a fault yet under the same as whole conditions.

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Location Map for the IPOC Creepmeter Array. Creepmeters are installed across four energetic segments that the Atacama Fault system (AFS) marked in red: the Mejillones Fault, the Chomache Fault, the Cerro Fortuna Fault and the Salar del Carmen segment.
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Sketch the creepmeter setup across a regular fault.

All the mounted instruments use 12 mm thick invar rods as size standards, which space firmly attached to a concrete structure on one side of the fault and pass with a PVC pipe to the much side the the fault. The creepmeters are buried at a depth the 30 - 70 cm, in stimulate to rise the signal-to-noise ratio. We usage a LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) v a linear variety of 50mm to monitor the relative displacement the the complimentary end that the rod relative to the permanent point. Displacement is convert to voltage change and stored on a data logger through a sampling rate of 2/min. The temperature in ~ the pole is additionally continuously measured through the exact same sampling rate but we store just an mean of 10 min to decrease the data volume and also correct the thermal expansion and contraction that the size standard. The length of the instrument is dependency on the geometry at every site and also ranges in between 2 and 9 m. One terminal per target fault is additionally equipped through a weather terminal to manage effects that humidity and air push changes. The moment of each data logger is synchronised via gps automatically. All instruments are equipped through an Inmarsat/BGAN satellite link and data is sent to the GFZ ftp server every third day.

Collocated with 3 of the creepmeters, we operate broadband seismometers come investigate prompted displacement events. The CHO1 website is equipped with seismometer CHOM (Guralp CMG-3ESP, sampling frequency 100Hz) since 2011 (collaboration with Monika Sobiesiak). CAR3 is equipped through a Trillium seismometer (sampling frequency 100 Hz) because 2014. MEJ3 is equipped with a Trillium seismometer (sampling frequency 100Hz) because 2017 (collaboration through Pablo Salazar, UCN).

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The IPOC Creep data are easily accessible upon request via https://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.1.1.2017.002.

Please mention them as: Victor, Pia; Ziegenhagen, Thomas; Oncken, Onno; Gonzalez, Gabriel (2017): IPOC Creep. GFZ Data Services. Doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.4.1.2017.002


People involved: Pia Victor (PI), thomas Ziegenhagen (GFZ, cook technician), Gabriel Gonzalez (UCN), Pablo Salazar (UCN), Monika Sobiesiak (Universität Kiel), Onno Oncken (GFZ)

Students:

Julia Berger (2020 – ongoing) Ariane Müting (student assistant, 2017 -2020) Matthias Kemter (student assistant and master thesis, 2015-2017) Christoph Bach (diploma thesis 2010)

Partner institutions: Universidad Católica del Norte, GFZ German Resarch Centre for Geosciences


Victor, P.,Oncken, O., Sobiesiak, M.,Kemter, M., Gonzalez, G.,Ziegenhagen, T.(2018): Dynamic triggering that shallow on slide on forearc faults constrained by monitoring surface displacement through the IPOC Creepmeter Array. - Earth and Planetary scientific research Letters, 502, 57-73. Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.08.046

Gassenmeier, M., C. Sens-Schönfelder, T. Eulenfeld, M. Bartsch, P. Victor, F. J. Tilmann, and also M. Korn (2016), field observations of seismic velocity changes caused by shaking-induced damage and also healing as result of mesoscopic nonlinearity, Geophysical journal International, 204(3), 1490–1502, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggv529

Victor, P., Kemter, M., Ewiak, O., Ziegenhagen, T., Oncken, O., Gonzalez, G. (2016): Unterschätzte Unbekannte – Aktive Störungen in der Oberplatte großer Subduktionssysteme. - system Erde, 6, 2, pp. 30—35. Http://doi.org/10.2312/GFZ.syserde.06.02.5

Shirzaei, M., Bürgmann, R., Oncken, O., Walter, T., Victor, P., Ewiak, O. (2012): an answer of forearc crustal faults to the megathrust earthquake cycle: InSAR proof from Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile. Earth and Planetary scientific research Letters, 333-334, 157-164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.04.001