Take a look at an erupting solar importance as observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite on in march 30, 2010
An erupting solar prestige observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite on march 30, 2010.

You are watching: What is the cause of sunspots flares and prominences

Prominences are among the many beautiful the solar phenomena. They space the analogues that clouds in earth’s atmosphere, however they space supported through magnetic fields, rather than by thermal currents together clouds are. Because the plasma the ions and electrons that renders up the solar atmosphere cannot cross magnetic field lines in areas of horizontal magnetic fields, material is supported against gravity. This wake up at the boundaries between one magnetic polarity and its opposite, whereby the connecting ar lines turning back direction. Thus, prominences space reliable indicators of sharp field transitions. (The fields are either up or down; tilted areas are unusual.) similar to the chromosphere, prominences are transparent in white irradiate and, except during full eclipses, need to be regarded in Hα. In ~ eclipse the red Hα line lends a beautiful pink to the prominences clearly shows at totality. The thickness of prominences is much reduced than that of the photosphere; there are couple of collisions to create radiation. Prominences absorb radiation indigenous below and also emit it in all directions, a procedure called pure scattering. The visible light emitted toward planet at the limb has actually been gotten rid of from the upward beam, so the prominences show up dark against the disk. Yet the skies is darker still, therefore they appear bright versus the sky. The temperature the prominences is 5,000–50,000 K. In the past, as soon as radiative processes were not well understood, prominences watched dark against the decaying were dubbed filaments.

There room two basic types of prominences: (1) quiescent, or long-lived, and (2) transient. The previous are connected with large magnetic fields, noting the borders of unipolar magnetic regions or sunspot groups. Because the huge unipolar plates space long-lived, the quiescent prominences room as well. This prominences may have varied forms—hedgerows, suspended clouds, or funnels—but they always take the form of two-dimensional exposed sheets. Secure filaments often become unstable and also erupt, however they may additionally just fade away. Couple of quiescent prominences live much more than a couple of days, but brand-new ones may kind on the magnetic boundary.


A prestige erupting indigenous the Sun. Photo of earth has been superimposed to show how huge the sun is in comparison. Hotter areas of the Sun show up in shining white, while cooler areas are red. The picture was bring away in excessive ultraviolet irradiate by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite.

The equilibrium of the much longer lived prominences is certainly curious. When one can expect castle to ultimately fall down, they constantly erupt upwards. This is due to the fact that all unattached magnetic areas have a incredible buoyancy and attempt to leaving the Sun. As soon as they do escape, they develop not only a splendid vision but additionally a transient shock wave in the corona called a coronal mass ejection, which can reason important geomagnetic effects.

Transient prominences space an integral part of solar activity. Sprays room the disorganized massive of product ejected by a flare. Surges room collimated streams the ejecta associated with little flares. In both situations some of the material returns to the surface. Loop prominences room the after-effects of flares. In the flare procedure a barrage of electron heats the surface ar to millions of degrees and also a warm (more 보다 10 million K), thick coronal cloud forms. This emits really strongly, cooling the material, which then, due to the fact that there is no magnetic support, descends to the surface in elegant loops, complying with the magnetic currently of force.

See more: How Long Can A Gecko Go Without Food ? How Long Can A Leopard Gecko Go Without Eating

The spectrum that prominences seen versus the sky reflects their history. Quiescent prominences have no resource of power except part conduction from the corona, which is a tiny effect because heat cannot overcome the ar lines. The spectrum is comparable to the chromosphere, other than in the chromosphere, spicule motions produce broad lines, while the importance lines are quite narrow till they erupt, indicating tiny internal motion. Surges and sprays likewise usually screen low excitation since they are often cool product seized and also ejected by magnetic forces. Loop prominences, top top the various other hand, room cooling indigenous a very hot post-flare coronal condensation and have just come to be visible. Thus, they present high-excitation lines of ionized helium and strong ultraviolet emission, as befits a gas in ~ 30,000 to 100,000 K.