L> chemical Bond DataChemical Bond energy Considerations

A chemistry bond creates when that is energetically favorable, i.e., as soon as the power of the bonded atom is less than the energies of the be separate atoms. Several of the species of tabulated data linked with chemical bonds are:

Ionization energy: the power required to eliminate an electron indigenous a neutral atom.

Electron affinity: the energy adjust when a neutral atom attractive an electron to end up being a an adverse ion. Electronegativity: the capacity of one atom in a molecule to attract bonding electron to itself.

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Go BackIonization Energy and also Electron Affinity

The ionization energy or ionization potential is the power necessary to remove an electron native the neutral atom. It is a minimum because that the alkali metals which have a single electron outside a closed shell. It typically increases throughout a heat on the routine maximum because that the noble gases which have closed shells. Because that example, sodium requires just 496 kJ/mol or 5.14 eV/atom to ionize that while neon, the noble gas automatically preceding it in the regular table, requires 2081 kJ/mol or 21.56 eV/atom. The ionization energy can be assumed of as a kind of respond to property come electronegativity in the feeling that a low ionization energy implies the an element readily gives electrons to a reaction, if a high electronegativity suggests that an aspect strongly seeks to take it electrons in a reaction.

The electron affinity is a measure up of the energy readjust when one electron is added to a neutral atom to form a an unfavorable ion. For example, when a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous kind picks increase an electron to form a Cl- ion, it releases an energy of 349 kJ/mol or 3.6 eV/atom. That is said to have actually an electron affinity that -349 kJ/mol and also this big number indicates that it forms a stable negative ion. Small numbers indicate that a much less stable an unfavorable ion is formed. Groups VIA and also VIIA in the periodic table have actually the biggest electron affinities.

1 kJ/mol = .010364 eV/atom
Graph that ionization energies the the elements
Table that electron affinities
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Go BackElectronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure up of the capacity of one atom in a molecule to draw bonding electron to itself. The most generally used scale of electronegativity is that developed by Linus Pauling in i beg your pardon the worth 4.0 is assigned come fluorine, the most electronegative element. Lithium, in ~ the other finish of the same duration on the periodic table, is assigned a worth of 1. Electronegativity typically increases indigenous left to appropriate on the routine table and also decreases from height to bottom. Steels are the the very least electronegative the the elements. The Pauling electronegativities for the elements are often had as a component of the graph of the elements.

vital application the electronegativity is in the prediction of the polarity of a chemistry bond. Since hydrogen has an electrognegativity that 2.1 and also chlorine has actually an electronegativity the 3.0, they would be intended to type a polar molecule through the chlorine gift the an adverse side of the dipole. The difference between the electronegativities of Na(0.9) and also Cl(3.0) space so good that they type an ionic bond. The hydrogen molecule top top the other hand, v zero electronegativty difference, becomes the classic example of a covalent bond.

After fluorine, oxygen is the next highest possible in electronegativity at 3.44, and also this has actually enormous results in practice. Because oxygen is the many abundant element on the Earth, that is high chemical activity makes the a component of most common substances.


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It"s electronegativity leads to the polar nature of the water molecule and contributes come the remarkable properties that water.

Periodic TableElectron affinity
Electronegativity Table
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Periodic TableElectron affinity
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