Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the transfer of one electron indigenous a steel atom to a non-metal atom.

You are watching: What is the relationship between lattice energy and the strength of ionic bonding

Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed between cations and anions.A cation is formed when a metal ion loses a valence electron while an anion is created when a non-metal gains a valence electron. Castle both achieve a much more stable electronic configuration with this exchange.Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, with high melting points, and are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic link which dissolves in H2O, do the result solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of one atom to entice electrons to itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemical bond in i beg your pardon valence electrons are lost from one atom and also gained through another. This exchange outcomes in a an ext stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atoms involved. One ionic shortcut is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ions of the contrary charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bonds involve a cation and also an anion. The bond is developed when one atom, frequently a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and also becomes a hopeful ion, or cation. One more atom, generally a non-metal, is able to gain the electron(s) to become a negative ion, or anion.

One example of an ionic bond is the development of salt fluoride, NaF, indigenous a sodium atom and also a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loser its solitary valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has just enough space to accept it. The ions produced are oppositely charged and also are attractive to one an additional due to electrostatic forces.

Formation that NaF: an electron is transferred from Na to F. The resulting Na+ and F– ions are electrically attracted to every other.

At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, are crystalline solids under common conditions, and also have high melting points. Many of this solids room soluble in H2O and also conduct electrical power when dissolved. The capability to conduct electrical energy in solution is why this substances are dubbed electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a great example of this type of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states connected with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons are shared between the two atoms. All ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, yet the larger the distinction in electronegativity between the 2 atoms, the higher the ionic personality of the interaction.

Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids form when cations and also anions are attracted.

Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure up of the bond strength in one ionic compound.

Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the determinants that affect it

Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is characterized as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot it is in measured empirically, however it deserve to be calculated utilizing electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that contribute to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and radius that the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warmth into the surroundings.lattice energy: The quantity of energy released upon development of a crystalline ionic heavy from gas ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an calculation of the bond stamin in ionic compounds. It is identified as the warm of formation for ion of opposite charge in the gas step to incorporate into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of salt chloride, NaCl, is the energy released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come together to type a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign of the power is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be assumed of together the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).

NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, depicted in purple and also green respectively, alternate in the decision lattice of hard NaCl.

Alternatively, lattice power can be believed of together the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).

Lattice energy cannot be established experimentally as result of the challenge in isolating gas ions. The energy value can be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculate theoretically through an electrostatic check of the crystal structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the adhering to model for lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which relies on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge number of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristics of the compressibility of the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of complimentary space; and r0 is the street to the closestly ion.

This model emphasizes two main components that contribute to the lattice energy of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and the radius, or size, the the ions. The result of those components is:

as the fee of the ions increases, the lattice energy increasesas the dimension of the ion increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are likewise important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller lattice energies often tend to be an ext soluble in H2O.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound can be figured out by the lose or obtain of valence electrons vital in order to attain stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and also anions the are combined in one ionic compound is the simplest proportion of whole integers that deserve to be combined to reach electric neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any type of of the aspects of group 18 the the periodic table, which room monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, i m sorry occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has actually no excess or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The most basic whole-number proportion between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion created of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is developed through the transfer of one or much more valence electrons, commonly from a metal to a non-metal, which produces a cation and an anion that space bound together by one attractive electrostatic force. Top top a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as sodium chloride (NaCl), kind a crystalline lattice and are solids at regular temperatures and pressures.

Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride decision lattice

The fee on the cations and anions is determined by the number of electrons forced to accomplish stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic ingredient is then identified by the need that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and bromine (Br) to acquire an ionic compound, we an initial note the electronic configurations of these atoms (valence level in shown in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In bespeak to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to shed its 2 valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, needs one added electron to fill its outer shell. Therefore, because that the resulting link to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must incorporate with one magnesium cation to type magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio of 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will meet the two demands above, the formula for ionic compounds is generally presented together the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number ratio of atom with positive integers.

Note the the cation always precedes the anion both in written type and in formulas. In the written form, if the cation surname is normally the exact same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to –ide, as in the situation of sodium chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the suffix deserve to vary, yet is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, relying on the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– combine to type LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– incorporate to type CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- integrate to form FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- integrate to form Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- integrate to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and PO43- combine to form (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– integrate to form KClO2

Video Summary

Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the finish transfer the valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the constituent atoms, definition all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature that a link is established by the relative electronegativities that the atom involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has actually a partial ionic character to it, together a result of the distinction in electronegativity in between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the propensity of an atom to lure electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are typically classified by the bonds in between constituent atoms. There are multiple kinds of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are normally presented together the complete loss or obtain of one or more valence electrons from a metal to a nonmetal, leading to cations and anions the are organized together by attractive electrostatic forces.


Ionic bonding: The formation of an ionic bond between lithium and fluorine to kind LiF.

Example the a polar covalent bond: as soon as a carbon atom creates a bond with fluorine, lock share a pair that electrons. However, because fluorine is much more highly electronegative than carbon, it attracts that mutual electron pair closer come itself and also thus create an electrical dipole. The lowercase greek delta written over the atoms is offered to indicate the presence of partial charges. This bond is thought about to have attributes of both covalent and also ionic bonds.

In reality, the bond in between these atom is more complex than this version illustrates. The bond developed between any kind of two atoms is no a purely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have actually some covalent character since the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a shortcut is figured out by the difference in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature of the bond. In the conventional presentation, bonds room designated as ionic when the ionic aspect is greater than the covalent aspect of the bond. Bond that loss in in between the 2 extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, are classified as polar covalent bonds. Such bonds are thought of as consisting the partially charged confident and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character represent points follow me a continuum, these designations are frequently advantageous in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and also covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds generally have greater boiling and also melting points, and also they are also usually more soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.