Science includes the systematic examine of the structure and also behaviour the the physical and natural human being through observation and experiment, and technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Oxford Reference provides much more than 210,000 concise definitions and also in-depth, specialist encyclopedic entries top top the wide variety of topics within these vast disciplines.

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Our coverage comprises authoritative, highly obtainable information on the an extremely latest terminology, concepts, theories, techniques, people, and organizations relating to all areas of science and also technology—from astronomy, engineering, physics, computer system science, and mathematics, to life and earth sciences, chemistry, environmental science, biology, and psychology. Written by trusted specialists for researcher at every level, entries are complemented by illustrative heat drawings, equations, and charts wherever useful.

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Featured author

Andrew M. Colman


Andrew M. Colman is the writer of A dictionary of Psychology (4th edn). The is Professor that Psychology in ~ the college of Leicester and also a fellow of the British psychological Society. He graduated with a BA (Hons) and also an MA in Psychology native the university of Cape Town and a doctor from Rhodes University. That is an author of many journal articles and several books, including Facts, Fallacies and also Frauds in Psychology, What is Psychology? (3rd edn), Game Theory and also its application in the Social and also Biological Sciences (2nd edn), and (with Briony D. Pulford), A Crash food in SPSS for Windows (4th edn). He edited the two-volume Companion Encyclopedia the Psychology and the 12-volume Longman vital Psychology series.

Author Q&A

What is the one term or ide that everyone—from student to daily web users—should be familiar with? Why?

I wish the everyone taken the clinical method, and in certain the distinctive importance of the controlled experiment together a an approach of scientific discovery. Youngsters should be taught at college what one experiment is and also why it is together a powerful means of finding out the truth. Psychology uses miscellaneous research methods, yet the most an effective is undoubtedly controlled experimentation, not due to the fact that it is more objective or an exact than other methods, but due to the fact that it is uniquely qualified of providing evidence of causal effects.

The defining features of one experiment are manipulation the a conjectured causal factor, dubbed an independent variable due to the fact that it is manipulated independently of various other variables, and examination of the impact of this top top a dependence variable, if simultaneously regulating all other extraneous variables that might otherwise influence the dependence variable. In mental experiments, extraneous variables can seldom be controlled directly, partly since people different from one an additional in means that impact their behaviour. You might think it’s difficult to manage for all individual differences and also other extraneous variables, yet in reality there is a impressive solution to this problem.

In 1926, the british statistician Ronald Fisher found a powerful an approach of regulate called randomization. By assigning topics or participants come an speculative group and a regulate group strictly at random, and also then dealing with the two teams identically apart from the manipulated independent change (applied to the speculative group only), an experimenter can control, at a single stroke, for all individual differences and other extraneous variables, including ones the no one has also considered. Randomization does no guarantee the the two groups will it is in identical however rather that any kind of differences in between the teams will follow exactly the well-known laws that probability.

This defines the function and function of statistical definition tests in psychology. For any kind of observed difference, a definition test allows a researcher to calculation the probability the a distinction at least as large as the observed difference might occur by opportunity alone. The researcher climate knows what the probability is of together a big difference under the null theory – the functioning hypothesis that the live independence variable has actually no effect. If the probability under the null theory is sufficiently tiny (by convention, usually much less than 5 per cent, often written ns illusory correlation, more sceptical around merely anecdotal evidence, and also capable that interpreting findings from any kind of survey research, case study, correlational study, observational study, or quasi-experiment with ideal caution.

What do you think is the most frequently held misconception in your topic area?

Although ns can’t prove the it’s the most common, the most fashionable misunderstanding is the assumption that phenomena that behaviour and also mental endure – the subject-matter of psychology – deserve to be understood and explained exclusively in regards to neural mechanisms. The is sustained by the increasingly renowned doctrine that neuroscience can in principle replace timeless psychology, the it is currently replacing traditional psychology, or (in its strongest form) the it has currently replaced classic psychology. This is a debilitating kind of reductionism, based on the assumption that behaviour and mental experiences are closely correlated through neural processes, especially in the brain; but locating a device in the brain does not amount to explaining the linked psychological phenomenon, together I can easily present with a Gedankenexperiment (thought experiment) and an instance from nature.

First, imagine a super-intelligent alien trying to understand a working computer system busy printing the end my Dictionary of Psychology top top a laser printer. By merely investigating the physical mechanism of the computer and also the printer, it would never know what the computer system was in reality doing; or at the very least its explanation would lack what is many important and also interesting about the computer’s behaviour.

Second, purposeful plot can take place naturally without any kind of involvement of neural mechanisms. For example, the uncellular cells paramecium, discovered abundantly in stagnant ponds, move about, avoids obstacles by swimming round them, gathers food, and also retreats from danger. It have the right to turn round in a glass tube to escape, and it can even learn from experience, although some neuroscientists unsurprisingly concern whether this is true learning. However a paramecium has no nervous system, and also its solitary cell is not even a neuron; therefore, it gives conclusive proof that neuroscience cannot explain all creates of behaviour.

In your opinion, which is the most fascinating entrance in your dictionary and also why?

Being request to pick the many fascinating entry is prefer being inquiry to pick one’s favourite child, and also I won’t perform it. I discover thousands that the entries fascinating, but the entry defining heuristic, along with the various specific heuristics cross-referenced from it, describes ideas that have fascinated others sufficiently to be rewarded v the only two Nobel prizes ever awarded because that purely emotional research. A heuristic is a rough-and-ready procedure or dominance of ignorance for do a decision, developing a judgement, or solving a problem, and we all use heuristics every the time. The us researcher Herbert Simon introduced the hatchet in its modern psychological feeling in 1957 to explain how human decision machines with bounded rationality solve troubles when they perform not have the time or resources to research all accessible possibilities thoroughly, and he obtained the an initial Nobel Prize for this work. Two years later, the Israeli-American psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman discovered and investigated experimentally a big number the biases in person thinking that can be traced to particular heuristics, and also in 2002 Kahneman to be rewarded because that this occupational with the 2nd Nobel Prize, Tversky having passed away a few years earlier.

A usual example is the associate fallacy: undergraduate student were presented personality sketches that a hypothetical person referred to as Linda (young, single, deep concerned around social issues, and also involved in anti-nuclear activity) and also asked even if it is it was much more probable that Linda to be a financial institution teller or that Linda to be a financial institution teller that was active in the feminist movement. No fewer than 86% the the students judged it an ext probable the that Linda to be a financial institution teller who was active in the feminist movement, return the probability the a conjunction A and also B can never be greater than the probability of A. The fallacy occurs from the use of the representativeness heuristic, according to which civilization estimate the probability that something belongs come a particular class by evaluate how common it is of that class. Since Linda seems more typical the feminist financial institution tellers than of bank tellers in general, many world fall right into the conjunction fallacy in this example.

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