A polar covalent bond exists as soon as atoms with different electronegativities share electron in a covalent bond.

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From: principles of organic Chemistry, 2015

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A polar covalent link exists once atoms with various electronegativities share electron in a covalent bond. Consider the hydrogen chloride (HCl) molecule. Every atom in HCl requires one an ext electron to type an inert gas electron configuration. Chlorine has actually a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, however the chlorine atom’s attraction because that electrons is not adequate to remove an electron from hydrogen. Consequently, the bonding electron in hydrogen chloride are shared unequally in a polar covalent bond. The molecule is stood for by the standard Lewis structure, even though the shared electron pair is linked to a larger degree with chlorine than through hydrogen. The unequal share of the bonding pair results in a partial an unfavorable charge ~ above the chlorine atom and a partial confident charge top top the hydrogen atom. The symbol δ (Greek small letter delta) denotes these fractional charges.



The hydrogen chloride molecule has a dipole (two poles), which is composed of a pair the opposite fees separated from every other. The dipole is presented by an arrow with a overcome at one end. The overcome is near the end of the molecule the is partially positive, and also the arrowhead is near the partially an unfavorable end that the molecule.



Single or lot of bonds between carbon atoms space nonpolar. Hydrogen and also carbon have similar electronegativity values, therefore the C—H bond is not normally considered a polar covalent bond. Therefore ethane, ethylene, and acetylene have nonpolar covalent bonds, and the compounds are nonpolar.


Bonds in between carbon and also other facets such as oxygen and also nitrogen are polar. The polarity the a bond relies on the electronegativities that the bonded atoms. Large differences in between the electronegativities of the external inspection atoms increase the polarity the bonds. The direction that the polarity of typical bonds uncovered in organic molecules is conveniently predicted. The common nonmetals are much more electronegative 보다 carbon. Therefore, as soon as a carbon atom is bonded to common nonmetal atoms, it has a partial optimistic charge.



Hydrogen is additionally less electronegative 보다 the typical nonmetals. Therefore, once a hydrogen atom is bonded to common nonmetals, the resulting polar bond has a partial optimistic charge on the hydrogen atom.

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The size of the polarity that a link is the dipole moment, (D). The dipole moment of number of bond species are offered in Table 1.2. The dipole minute of a particular bond is relatively constant from link to compound. As soon as carbon develops multiple bond to other elements, this bonds room polar. Both the carbon-oxygen dual bond in formaldehyde (methanal) and also the carbon—nitrogen triple link in acetonitrile (cyanomethane) are polar.


Structural Unit1Bond moment (D)
H—C0.4
H—N1.3
H—O1.5
H—F1.7
H—S0.7
H—Cl1.1
H—Br0.8
H—I0.4
C—C0.0
C—N0.2
C—O0.7
C—F1.4
C—Cl1.5
C—Br1.4
C—I1.2
C = O2.3
C ≡ N3.5