TIP SheetSENTENCE FRAGMENTS
A sentence is a group of words that consists of three things:A subject (that renders sense with the verbA verb (that goes through the subject)A finish thought
A sentence fragment is a team of words the lacks one or more of these three things. While over there are many ways to finish up through a fragment, virtually every fragment is just a result of one of the adhering to three problems:It is absent a subjectIt is missing a verb.It fails to finish the assumed it starts.
You are watching: Which fragment is made up of a complete subject
Fragments space no big deal in conversation; talked English is complete of them. In fact, if you spoke in complete sentences because that one whole day, you would certainly probably obtain some strange looks. However English conventions need that you protect against writing pieces (except in really rare instances), so you must be able to identify lock in your writing and also fix them.
To start to identify fragments in her writing, read a sentence aloud. Does that sound complete? If you walked up to a stranger and also said it come him, would certainly it sound favor a complete thought come him? Or would he be waiting expectantly for you come finish? even if the sounds okay to you (because you already know what girlfriend mean), look at it and identify the topic (who or what walk the action) and also the verb (what the subject did) to make sure they"re there. (For aid identifying subjects and also verbs, view the guideline Sheet Parts that Sentences.) If you think a subject is missing, or the verb sounds a small strange, or the assumed is left hanging, describe the tips below.
Missing subjectsSome pieces are missing subjects. Regularly the subject shows up nearby, perhaps in the coming before sentence; however, each sentence must have a topic of that own. The complying with fragment lacks a subject:
FragmentWas to run late the day.
Who was to run late? The instructor? The train? The most basic (but through no means only) means to exactly this fragment is to include a subject:
I was running late that day.
Phrases which encompass words ending in -ing often appear as fragments:
FragmentBiking and also swimming after work-related on Thursday.
What around biking and also swimming? who is biking and swimming? are you suggest that we all go biking and swimming? add both a subject and also a verb to exactly this (again, no the only solution):
Mitchell walk biking and also swimming after work on Thursday.
Another doubt in the missing subject group is a phrase like this one:
FragmentTo it is registered for class prior to the deadline.
Who desires to register? Or failed come register? Or plans to register? This fragment lacks both subject and verb. ("To register" is no really a verb, but an additional thing entirely; see the tip Sheet Other Phrases: Verbal, Appositive, Absolute). The simplest deal with is to add a subject and verb:
Stan wishes to it is registered for class prior to the deadline.
(Avoid the failure of reasoning that a command, demand, or request lacks a subject. This sort of sentence has an unstated subject, you. So the subject of "Turn in her schedule alters at the counter" is you: "
Missing verbsSome fragments are fragments because they are missing a verb or crucial part that a verb. Any phrase, no matter just how long, is a fragment if the verb is missing:
FragmentThe birch trees with their rattling yellow leaves.
What about the birch trees? adding a verb makes this fragment complete:
The birch trees with their rattling yellow leaves swayed in the wind.
Some verbs call for helpers in stimulate to be complete. Words finishing in -ing, for example, must include helpers such as is, are, was, were, will be, or has been to be actual verbs; without this helpers, they room not verbs. (If you desire to know more about verb look-alikes, watch the tip Sheet Other Phrases: Verbal, Appositive, Absolute.) The fragment below contains one incomplete verb:
FragmentCaroline studying her sociology tonight at Moxie"s downtown.
Did her ear hear the strangeness? add helpers to do the verb complete and repair the fragment:
Caroline will certainly be examining her sociology this evening at Moxie"s downtown.
Unfinished thoughtsA really common kind of fragment is the unfinished thought fragment.While various other kinds of fragments require you to add something--a subject, or a verb, or both--you can frequently fix unfinished thought fragments simply by involvement them come a coming before or following sentence. The adhering to example, while it includes a subject and also a verb, stops working to finish the thought:
FragmentBecause tuition boosted again this semester.
The word to blame because that making this assumed incomplete is because. (Contrary come rumor, it"s perfectly it s okay to begin a sentence through because; friend just have actually to end up what you"re saying--in the same sentence.)If you discover a fragment the this kind, see if the sentence prior to or the sentence after it would complete it:
Because tuition raised again this semester, Kou acquired a 2nd job together a student Assistant.
Kou need to take fewer units since tuition enhanced again this semester.
If the preceding or adhering to sentence go not finish the loose thought, include the absent information to the fragment to do it complete. Over there are numerous words that, by your mere presence, make a clause incomplete, because that example, since, while, when, unless, although. For more about this words, watch the reminder Sheet Independent & dependent Clauses.
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In spite of the rule of grammar, language is plastic and also can be shaped a an excellent many ways, so for any kind of fragment problem, plenty of solutions exist. The more you practice writing, the much more you will have the ability to spot fragments and also fix them. And also the more you learn around English, the much more ways girlfriend will find to make your grammatically exactly sentences say precisely what girlfriend mean.