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the bar kochba rebellion (132-135) versus the roman empire, additionally known as the second jewish-roman war, was the second significant jewish revolt in judea and the last of the great jewish-roman wars.
after the first jewish-roman battle of the years 66-73, the roman authorities took actions to like any new attempt that rebellion in judea. His political case was modified and instead of a prefect a branch of praetorian rank was appointed, and also in the damages of jerusalem the seat of a finish roman legion, the legio x fretensis to be established.
the political and spiritual direction that the jewish people was left in the hand of the sanhedrin, through initial headquarters in yavne.
the direct reasons of the rebellion vary according to the source. The roman historian dio cassius (155-229) attributes the revolt to the decision that hadrian to discovered in the location of jerusalem a roman inn city referred to as aelia capitolina (aelia by its own name and capitolina in honor of the roman inn god jupiter). Top top the various other hand, the jewish sources, if recognizing this resolution as true, assign higher priority come the decrees dictated through hadrian that forbade the brit milah (circumcision), the respect the the sabbath and also the legislations of purity in the family.
hadrian"s intention was to "civilize" and also incorporate the jews once and also for all right into the greco-roman culture. Because that greek and roman culture, circumcision was an intolerable mutilation.
the jewish legacy tells in the midrash tanjuma a meeting in between rabbi akiva and the branch turnus rufus, whereby he asked for an explanation around the circumcision.
an additional legion, the legio vi ferrata, relocated to the district to preserve order, and also work started in the year 131 after ~ the branch of judea, turnus rufus performed the founding ceremony of aelia capitolina. A roman coin with the inscription aelia capitolina was struck in the year 132.
the tannaim rabbi akiva, who without being called nasi command the sanhedrin, convinced the other members to assistance the brewing rebellion.
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the jewish leaders closely planned the 2nd rebellion to prevent the numerous errors that had been cursed in the an initial one. In the year 132 the rebellion led through bar kochba conveniently expanded indigenous modiim throughout the country, defeating the x roman legion based in jerusalem and also destroying the xxii roman legion that had actually come from egypt.