Learning Objective

Explain the vital features the Augustus’s reign and the reasons for that successes

Key Points

Following the assassination of his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, Caesar’s will named Octavian as his adopted son and also heir once Octavian was just 19 year old.By ingratiating himself v his father’s legions, Octavian to be able to accomplish the armed forces demands the the roman inn Senate. He quickly gained both power and also prestige and formed the 2nd Triumvirate through Antony and Lepidus in 43 BCE.By 31 BCE, Octavian had emerged as the sole leader of Rome, top top the political and military loss of the two other triumvirs.

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Mark Antony

Julius Caesar’s best hand man, and a member that the 2nd Triumvirate. He was eventually defeated by Octavian at the fight of Actium in 31 BCE.


The founder of the roman inn Empire, well-known as Octavian throughout his beforehand years and also during his rise to power.

Augustus is concerned by countless scholars together the founder and first emperor the the roman Empire. He ruled from 27 BCE till his fatality in 14 CE.

Rise come Power

Augustus was born Gaius Octavius, and in his early on years was known as Octavian. He was from one old and also wealthy equestrian branch the the plebeian Octavii family. Adhering to the assassination of his maternal great-uncle, Julius Caesar, in 44 BCE, Caesar’s will named Octavian together his adopted son and heir when Octavian was just 19 years old. The young Octavian quickly took advantage of the situation and ingratiated himself with both the roman people and also his adoptive father’s legions, in order to elevating his status and also importance in ~ Rome. Octavian found Mark Antony, Julius Caesar’s former colleague and also the current consul that Rome, in an uneasy truce v Caesar’s assassins, who had actually been granted basic amnesty for their component in the plot. Nonetheless, Antony at some point succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome, making use of Caesar’s eulogy as an opportunity to mountain public opinion against the assassins.

Mark Antony started amassing political support, and also Octavian collection about rivaling it. Eventually, many Caesarian sympathizers began to view Octavian together the lesser angry of the two. Octavian allied himself with optimate factions, despite their opposition to Caesar once he to be alive. The optimate orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero, began attacking Antony in a series of speeches, illustrating him together a risk to the republican stimulate of Rome. As public opinion versus him mounted, Antony fled come Cisalpine Gaul in ~ the end of his consular year.

Octavian further created himself both politically and also militarily in the following months. He was claimed a senator and also granted the strength of military command, imperium, in 43 BCE, and was further able come leverage his successes to acquire the vacant consulships left by the two defeated consuls of the year.

Octavian ultimately reached an uncomfortable truce with note Antony and also Marcus Lepidus in October 43 BCE, and together, the three developed the second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins that Caesar. Adhering to their victory versus Brutus in ~ Phillipi, the Triumvirate divided the roman inn Republic amongst themselves and also ruled as military dictators. Relations within the Triumvirate were strained together the miscellaneous members sought higher political power. Polite war between Antony and also Octavian was averted in 40 BCE, as soon as Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia Minor. In spite of his marriage, Antony continued a love affair v Cleopatra, the former lover the Caesar and queen that Egypt, more straining politics ties come Rome. Octavian offered Antony’s relationship with Cleopatra come his very own advantage, illustrating Antony as much less committed come Rome. V Lepidus expelled in 36 BCE, the Triumvirate finally broke down in the year 33. Finally, disagreements between Octavian and also Antony erupted into civil battle in the year 31 BCE.

The roman Senate, in ~ Octavian’s direction, claimed war top top Cleopatra’s routine in Egypt and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Antony was beat by Octavian in ~ the naval fight of Actium the very same year. Defeated, Antony fled with Cleopatra come Alexandria whereby they both cursed suicide. V Antony dead, Octavian was left together the undisputed master of the roman inn world. Octavian would certainly assume the location Augustus, and also reign as the very first Roman Emperor.

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Augustus that Prima Porta. The statue that Augustus the Prima Porta is perhaps one of the ideal known pictures of the Emperor Augustus. The portrays the emperor as perpetually youthful, and also depicts many of the crucial propaganda messages the Augustus put forth during his time together emperor.