The answers deserve to probably only be uncovered through historical sources and methods,
First, the answer to your second question.
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The existing calendar that most of the western human being uses is Gregorian Calendar1, i beg your pardon is an advancement over Julian Calendar, i beg your pardon itself was an innovation over classic Roman Calendar.
Now, on come the an initial question.
Generally months with 31 and 30 work come in alternative fashion other than for July and also August which are consecutive. For this reason why do they both have actually 31 days?
To answer this, we need to very first look into the yellowcomic.com of roman inn Calendar. The first roman inn calendar attributed to legendary Romulus had 10 months, and also it began from Martius, i.e. The month we call March. And that can still be seen in the modern calendar today. September, October, November, and December room 9th, 10th, 11th and also 12th month respectively, yet Sept comes from Latin because that 7, Oct is because that 8, and also so on.
After that, there were a couple of (minor) changes to the roman inn Calendar prior to the introduction of Julian Calendar. At that time, there were 12 months, through Iunarius and also Februarius, new months added before Martius. And yet, an ordinary year had 355 days, however, a dry solar year, i.e. The duration of Earth"s transformation around the Sun, is around 365.25 days. Therefore, before this time, Romans offered to add a month called Mensis Intercalaris the 27/28-days in between Februarius and also Martius to balance this. (the detailed scheme can be checked out in the wikipedia short article on Julian Calendar).
To change this, the calendar was considerably overhauled under the regime of Julius Caesar. Among the consequences of this reform to be Quintilis (Quint - 5; so currently the 7th month), which currently had 31 days, retained 31 days; and also Sextilis (Sex - 6; so currently the 8th month), which earlier had 29 days, obtained a an increase of 2 days and also now had 31 days.If one is curious, the net adjust was January (Iunarius), Sextilis (August), and also December got 2 days each, whereas Aprilis (April), Iunius (June), September, and also November obtained 1 job each.
Now because that the names of this months. After the death of Julius Caesar, Quintilis to be renamed come Julius in his honor, i m sorry is the origin of July. Similarly, Sextilis was renamed come Augustus in the honor of then reigning emperor Augustus.
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Interestingly, subsequent kings Tiberius, Caligula, Domitian and also Commodus (unsuccessfully) tried come rename September after themselves, however failed.
1 Technically, current calendar - the UTC is a further alteration of Gregorian Calendar, because a Leap 2nd is sometimes added, to keep the time of day close to typical solar time. However for all useful purposes, it"s not substantially different indigenous Gregorian Calendar.